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if_perl.txt   For Vim version 8.0.  Last change: 2015 Oct 16


                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Sven Verdoolaege
                                         and Matt Gerassimof

Perl and Vim                            perl Perl

1. Editing Perl files                   perl-editing
2. Compiling VIM with Perl interface    perl-compiling
3. Using the Perl interface             perl-using
4. Dynamic loading                      perl-dynamic

{Vi does not have any of these commands}

The Perl interface only works when Vim was compiled with the +perl feature.

==============================================================================
1. Editing Perl files                                   perl-editing

Vim syntax highlighting supports Perl and POD files.  Vim assumes a file is
Perl code if the filename has a .pl or .pm suffix.  Vim also examines the first
line of a file, regardless of the filename suffix, to check if a file is a
Perl script (see scripts.vim in Vim's syntax directory).  Vim assumes a file
is POD text if the filename has a .POD suffix.

To use tags with Perl, you need a recent version of Exuberant ctags.  Look
here:
        http://ctags.sourceforge.net

Alternatively, you can use the Perl script pltags.pl, which is shipped with
Vim in the $VIMRUNTIME/tools directory.  This script has currently more
features than Exuberant ctags' Perl support.

==============================================================================
2. Compiling VIM with Perl interface                    perl-compiling

To compile Vim with Perl interface, you need Perl 5.004 (or later).  Perl must
be installed before you compile Vim.  Vim's Perl interface does NOT work with
the 5.003 version that has been officially released!  It will probably work
with Perl 5.003_05 and later.

The Perl patches for Vim were made by:
        Sven Verdoolaege <skimo@breughel.ufsia.ac.be>
        Matt Gerassimof

Perl for MS-Windows can be found at: http://www.perl.com/
The ActiveState one should work.

==============================================================================
3. Using the Perl interface                             perl-using

                                                        :perl :pe
:pe[rl] {cmd}           Execute Perl command {cmd}.  The current package
                        is "main".  Simple example to test if :perl is
                        working: 
                                :perl VIM::Msg("Hello")

:pe[rl] << {endpattern}
{script}
{endpattern}
                        Execute Perl script {script}.
                        {endpattern} must NOT be preceded by any white space.
                        If {endpattern} is omitted, it defaults to a dot '.'
                        like for the :append and :insert commands.  Using
                        '.' helps when inside a function, because "$i;" looks
                        like the start of an :insert command to Vim.
                        This form of the :perl command is mainly useful for
                        including perl code in vim scripts.
                        Note: This command doesn't work when the Perl feature
                        wasn't compiled in.  To avoid errors, see
                        script-here.


Example vim script: 

        function! WhitePearl()
        perl << EOF
                VIM::Msg("pearls are nice for necklaces");
                VIM::Msg("rubys for rings");
                VIM::Msg("pythons for bags");
                VIM::Msg("tcls????");
        EOF
        endfunction

To see what version of Perl you have: 
        :perl print $^V


                                                        :perldo :perld
:[range]perld[o] {cmd}  Execute Perl command {cmd} for each line in the
                        [range], with $_ being set to the text of each line in
                        turn, without a trailing <EOL>.  Setting $_ will change
                        the text, but note that it is not possible to add or
                        delete lines using this command.
                        The default for [range] is the whole file: "1,$".

Here are some things you can try: 

  :perl $a=1
  :perldo $_ = reverse($_);1
  :perl VIM::Msg("hello")
  :perl $line = $curbuf->Get(42)

                                                        E299
Executing Perl commands in the sandbox is limited.  ":perldo" will not be
possible at all.  ":perl" will be evaluated in the Safe environment, if
possible.


                                                        perl-overview
Here is an overview of the functions that are available to Perl: 

  :perl VIM::Msg("Text")                # displays a message
  :perl VIM::Msg("Error", "ErrorMsg")   # displays an error message
  :perl VIM::Msg("remark", "Comment")   # displays a highlighted message
  :perl VIM::SetOption("ai")            # sets a vim option
  :perl $nbuf = VIM::Buffers()          # returns the number of buffers
  :perl @buflist = VIM::Buffers()       # returns array of all buffers
  :perl $mybuf = (VIM::Buffers('qq.c'))[0] # returns buffer object for 'qq.c'
  :perl @winlist = VIM::Windows()       # returns array of all windows
  :perl $nwin = VIM::Windows()          # returns the number of windows
  :perl ($success, $v) = VIM::Eval('&path') # $v: option 'path', $success: 1
  :perl ($success, $v) = VIM::Eval('&xyz')  # $v: '' and $success: 0
  :perl $v = VIM::Eval('expand("<cfile>")') # expands <cfile>
  :perl $curwin->SetHeight(10)          # sets the window height
  :perl @pos = $curwin->Cursor()        # returns (row, col) array
  :perl @pos = (10, 10)
  :perl $curwin->Cursor(@pos)           # sets cursor to @pos
  :perl $curwin->Cursor(10,10)          # sets cursor to row 10 col 10
  :perl $mybuf = $curwin->Buffer()      # returns the buffer object for window
  :perl $curbuf->Name()                 # returns buffer name
  :perl $curbuf->Number()               # returns buffer number
  :perl $curbuf->Count()                # returns the number of lines
  :perl $l = $curbuf->Get(10)           # returns line 10
  :perl @l = $curbuf->Get(1 .. 5)       # returns lines 1 through 5
  :perl $curbuf->Delete(10)             # deletes line 10
  :perl $curbuf->Delete(10, 20)         # delete lines 10 through 20
  :perl $curbuf->Append(10, "Line")     # appends a line
  :perl $curbuf->Append(10, "Line1", "Line2", "Line3") # appends 3 lines
  :perl @l = ("L1", "L2", "L3")
  :perl $curbuf->Append(10, @l)         # appends L1, L2 and L3
  :perl $curbuf->Set(10, "Line")        # replaces line 10
  :perl $curbuf->Set(10, "Line1", "Line2")      # replaces lines 10 and 11
  :perl $curbuf->Set(10, @l)            # replaces 3 lines

                                                        perl-Msg
VIM::Msg({msg}, {group}?)
                        Displays the message {msg}.  The optional {group}
                        argument specifies a highlight group for Vim to use
                        for the message.

                                                        perl-SetOption
VIM::SetOption({arg})   Sets a vim option.  {arg} can be any argument that the
                        ":set" command accepts.  Note that this means that no
                        spaces are allowed in the argument!  See :set.

                                                        perl-Buffers
VIM::Buffers([{bn}...]) With no arguments, returns a list of all the buffers
                        in an array context or returns the number of buffers
                        in a scalar context.  For a list of buffer names or
                        numbers {bn}, returns a list of the buffers matching
                        {bn}, using the same rules as Vim's internal
                        bufname() function.
                        WARNING: the list becomes invalid when :bwipe is
                        used.  Using it anyway may crash Vim.

                                                        perl-Windows
VIM::Windows([{wn}...]) With no arguments, returns a list of all the windows
                        in an array context or returns the number of windows
                        in a scalar context.  For a list of window numbers
                        {wn}, returns a list of the windows with those
                        numbers.
                        WARNING: the list becomes invalid when a window is
                        closed.  Using it anyway may crash Vim.

                                                        perl-DoCommand
VIM::DoCommand({cmd})   Executes Ex command {cmd}.

                                                        perl-Eval
VIM::Eval({expr})       Evaluates {expr} and returns (success, value) in list 
                        context or just value in scalar context.
                        success=1 indicates that val contains the value of
                        {expr}; success=0 indicates a failure to evaluate
                        the expression.  '@x' returns the contents of register
                        x, '&x' returns the value of option x, 'x' returns the
                        value of internal variables x, and '$x' is equivalent
                        to perl's $ENV{x}.  All functions accessible from
                        the command-line are valid for {expr}.
                        A List is turned into a string by joining the items
                        and inserting line breaks.

                                                        perl-SetHeight
Window->SetHeight({height})
                        Sets the Window height to {height}, within screen
                        limits.

                                                        perl-GetCursor
Window->Cursor({row}?, {col}?)
                        With no arguments, returns a (row, col) array for the
                        current cursor position in the Window.  With {row} and
                        {col} arguments, sets the Window's cursor position to
                        {row} and {col}.  Note that {col} is numbered from 0,
                        Perl-fashion, and thus is one less than the value in
                        Vim's ruler.

Window->Buffer()                                        perl-Buffer
                        Returns the Buffer object corresponding to the given
                        Window.

                                                        perl-Name
Buffer->Name()          Returns the filename for the Buffer.

                                                        perl-Number
Buffer->Number()        Returns the number of the Buffer.

                                                        perl-Count
Buffer->Count()         Returns the number of lines in the Buffer.

                                                        perl-Get
Buffer->Get({lnum}, {lnum}?, ...)
                        Returns a text string of line {lnum} in the Buffer
                        for each {lnum} specified.  An array can be passed
                        with a list of {lnum}'s specified.

                                                        perl-Delete
Buffer->Delete({lnum}, {lnum}?)
                        Deletes line {lnum} in the Buffer.  With the second
                        {lnum}, deletes the range of lines from the first
                        {lnum} to the second {lnum}.

                                                        perl-Append
Buffer->Append({lnum}, {line}, {line}?, ...)
                        Appends each {line} string after Buffer line {lnum}.
                        The list of {line}s can be an array.

                                                        perl-Set
Buffer->Set({lnum}, {line}, {line}?, ...)
                        Replaces one or more Buffer lines with specified
                        {lines}s, starting at Buffer line {lnum}.  The list of
                        {line}s can be an array.  If the arguments are
                        invalid, replacement does not occur.

$main::curwin
                        The current window object.

$main::curbuf
                        The current buffer object.


                                                        script-here
When using a script language in-line, you might want to skip this when the
language isn't supported.  But this mechanism doesn't work: 
   if has('perl')
     perl << EOF
       this will NOT work!
   EOF
   endif
Instead, put the Perl/Python/Ruby/etc. command in a function and call that
function: 
    if has('perl')
      function DefPerl()
        perl << EOF
          this works
    EOF
      endfunction
      call DefPerl()
    endif
Note that "EOF" must be at the start of the line.

==============================================================================
4. Dynamic loading                                      perl-dynamic

On MS-Windows and Unix the Perl library can be loaded dynamically.  The
:version output then includes +perl/dyn.

This means that Vim will search for the Perl DLL or shared library file only
when needed.  When you don't use the Perl interface you don't need it, thus
you can use Vim without this file.


MS-Windows 

You can download Perl from http://www.perl.org.  The one from ActiveState was
used for building Vim.

To use the Perl interface the Perl DLL must be in your search path.
If Vim reports it cannot find the perl512.dll, make sure your $PATH includes
the directory where it is located.  The Perl installer normally does that.
In a console window type "path" to see what directories are used.  The
'perldll' option can be also used to specify the Perl DLL.

The name of the DLL must match the Perl version Vim was compiled with.
Currently the name is "perl512.dll".  That is for Perl 5.12.  To know for
sure edit "gvim.exe" and search for "perl\d*.dll\c".


Unix 

The 'perldll' option can be used to specify the Perl shared library file
instead of DYNAMIC_PERL_DLL file what was specified at compile time.  The
version of the shared library must match the Perl version Vim was compiled
with.

==============================================================================
 vim:tw=78:ts=8:ft=help:norl:

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