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windows.txt   For Vim version 7.4.  Last change: 2014 Sep 23


                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar


Editing with multiple windows and buffers.              windows buffers

The commands which have been added to use multiple windows and buffers are
explained here.  Additionally, there are explanations for commands that work
differently when used in combination with more than one window.

The basics are explained in chapter 7 and 8 of the user manual usr_07.txt
usr_08.txt.

1.  Introduction                                windows-intro
2.  Starting Vim                                windows-starting
3.  Opening and closing a window                opening-window
4.  Moving cursor to other windows              window-move-cursor
5.  Moving windows around                       window-moving
6.  Window resizing                             window-resize
7.  Argument and buffer list commands           buffer-list
8.  Do a command in all buffers or windows      list-repeat
9.  Tag or file name under the cursor           window-tag
10. The preview window                          preview-window
11. Using hidden buffers                        buffer-hidden
12. Special kinds of buffers                    special-buffers

{Vi does not have any of these commands}
{not able to use multiple windows when the +windows feature was disabled at
compile time}
{not able to use vertically split windows when the +vertsplit feature was
disabled at compile time}

==============================================================================
1. Introduction                                 windows-intro window

Summary:
   A buffer is the in-memory text of a file.
   A window is a viewport on a buffer.
   A tab page is a collection of windows.

A window is a viewport onto a buffer.  You can use multiple windows on one
buffer, or several windows on different buffers.

A buffer is a file loaded into memory for editing.  The original file remains
unchanged until you write the buffer to the file.

A buffer can be in one of three states:

                                                        active-buffer
active:   The buffer is displayed in a window.  If there is a file for this
          buffer, it has been read into the buffer.  The buffer may have been
          modified since then and thus be different from the file.
                                                        hidden-buffer
hidden:   The buffer is not displayed.  If there is a file for this buffer, it
          has been read into the buffer.  Otherwise it's the same as an active
          buffer, you just can't see it.
                                                        inactive-buffer
inactive: The buffer is not displayed and does not contain anything.  Options
          for the buffer are remembered if the file was once loaded.  It can
          contain marks from the viminfo file.  But the buffer doesn't
          contain text.

In a table:

state           displayed       loaded          ":buffers"  
                in window                       shows       
active            yes            yes              'a'
hidden            no             yes              'h'
inactive          no             no               ' '

Note: All CTRL-W commands can also be executed with :wincmd, for those
places where a Normal mode command can't be used or is inconvenient.

The main Vim window can hold several split windows.  There are also tab pages
tab-page, each of which can hold multiple windows.

==============================================================================
2. Starting Vim                                         windows-starting

By default, Vim starts with one window, just like Vi.

The "-o" and "-O" arguments to Vim can be used to open a window for each file
in the argument list.  The "-o" argument will split the windows horizontally;
the "-O" argument will split the windows vertically.  If both "-o" and "-O"
are given, the last one encountered will be used to determine the split
orientation.  For example, this will open three windows, split horizontally: 
        vim -o file1 file2 file3

"-oN", where N is a decimal number, opens N windows split horizontally.  If
there are more file names than windows, only N windows are opened and some
files do not get a window.  If there are more windows than file names, the
last few windows will be editing empty buffers.  Similarly, "-ON" opens N
windows split vertically, with the same restrictions.

If there are many file names, the windows will become very small.  You might
want to set the 'winheight' and/or 'winwidth' options to create a workable
situation.

Buf/Win Enter/Leave autocommands are not executed when opening the new
windows and reading the files, that's only done when they are really entered.

                                                        status-line
A status line will be used to separate windows.  The 'laststatus' option tells
when the last window also has a status line:
        'laststatus' = 0        never a status line
        'laststatus' = 1        status line if there is more than one window
        'laststatus' = 2        always a status line

You can change the contents of the status line with the 'statusline' option.
This option can be local to the window, so that you can have a different
status line in each window.

Normally, inversion is used to display the status line.  This can be changed
with the 's' character in the 'highlight' option.  For example, "sb" sets it to
bold characters.  If no highlighting is used for the status line ("sn"), the
'^' character is used for the current window, and '=' for other windows.  If
the mouse is supported and enabled with the 'mouse' option, a status line can
be dragged to resize windows.

Note: If you expect your status line to be in reverse video and it isn't,
check if the 'highlight' option contains "si".  In version 3.0, this meant to
invert the status line.  Now it should be "sr", reverse the status line, as
"si" now stands for italic!  If italic is not available on your terminal, the
status line is inverted anyway; you will only see this problem on terminals
that have termcap codes for italics.

==============================================================================
3. Opening and closing a window                         opening-window E36

CTRL-W s                                                CTRL-W_s
CTRL-W S                                                CTRL-W_S
CTRL-W CTRL-S                                           CTRL-W_CTRL-S
:[N]sp[lit] [++opt] [+cmd] [file]                       :sp :split
                Split current window in two.  The result is two viewports on
                the same file.
                
                Make the new window N high (default is to use half the height
                of the current window).  Reduces the current window height to
                create room (and others, if the 'equalalways' option is set,
                'eadirection' isn't "hor", and one of them is higher than the
                current or the new window).

                If [file] is given it will be edited in the new window.  If it
                is not loaded in any buffer, it will be read.  Else the new
                window will use the already loaded buffer.

                Note: CTRL-S does not work on all terminals and might block
                further input, use CTRL-Q to get going again.
                Also see ++opt and +cmd.

CTRL-W CTRL-V                                           CTRL-W_CTRL-V
CTRL-W v                                                CTRL-W_v
:[N]vs[plit] [++opt] [+cmd] [file]                      :vs :vsplit
                Like :split, but split vertically.  The windows will be
                spread out horizontally if
                1. a width was not specified,
                2. 'equalalways' is set,
                3. 'eadirection' isn't "ver", and
                4. one of the other windows is wider than the current or new
                   window.
                Note: In other places CTRL-Q does the same as CTRL-V, but here
                it doesn't!

CTRL-W n                                                CTRL-W_n
CTRL-W CTRL_N                                           CTRL-W_CTRL-N
:[N]new [++opt] [+cmd]                                  :new
                Create a new window and start editing an empty file in it.
                Make new window N high (default is to use half the existing
                height).  Reduces the current window height to create room (and
                others, if the 'equalalways' option is set and 'eadirection'
                isn't "hor").
                Also see ++opt and +cmd.
                If 'fileformats' is not empty, the first format given will be
                used for the new buffer.  If 'fileformats' is empty, the
                'fileformat' of the current buffer is used.  This can be
                overridden with the ++opt argument.
                Autocommands are executed in this order:
                1. WinLeave for the current window
                2. WinEnter for the new window
                3. BufLeave for the current buffer
                4. BufEnter for the new buffer
                This behaves like a ":split" first, and then an ":enew"
                command.

:[N]vne[w] [++opt] [+cmd] [file]                        :vne :vnew
                Like :new, but split vertically.  If 'equalalways' is set
                and 'eadirection' isn't "ver" the windows will be spread out
                horizontally, unless a width was specified.

:[N]new [++opt] [+cmd] {file}
:[N]sp[lit] [++opt] [+cmd] {file}                       :split_f
                Create a new window and start editing file {file} in it.  This
                behaves like a ":split" first, and then an ":e" command.
                If [+cmd] is given, execute the command when the file has been
                loaded +cmd.
                Also see ++opt.
                Make new window N high (default is to use half the existing
                height).  Reduces the current window height to create room
                (and others, if the 'equalalways' option is set).

:[N]sv[iew] [++opt] [+cmd] {file}               :sv :sview splitview
                Same as ":split", but set 'readonly' option for this buffer.

:[N]sf[ind] [++opt] [+cmd] {file}               :sf :sfind splitfind
                Same as ":split", but search for {file} in 'path' like in
                :find.  Doesn't split if {file} is not found.

CTRL-W CTRL-^                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-^ CTRL-W_^
CTRL-W ^        Does ":split #", split window in two and edit alternate file.
                When a count is given, it becomes ":split #N", split window
                and edit buffer N.

Note that the 'splitbelow' and 'splitright' options influence where a new
window will appear.

                                                :vert :vertical
:vert[ical] {cmd}
                Execute {cmd}.  If it contains a command that splits a window,
                it will be split vertically.
                Doesn't work for :execute and :normal.

:lefta[bove] {cmd}                              :lefta :leftabove
:abo[veleft] {cmd}                              :abo :aboveleft
                Execute {cmd}.  If it contains a command that splits a window,
                it will be opened left (vertical split) or above (horizontal
                split) the current window.  Overrules 'splitbelow' and
                'splitright'.
                Doesn't work for :execute and :normal.

:rightb[elow] {cmd}                             :rightb :rightbelow
:bel[owright] {cmd}                             :bel :belowright
                Execute {cmd}.  If it contains a command that splits a window,
                it will be opened right (vertical split) or below (horizontal
                split) the current window.  Overrules 'splitbelow' and
                'splitright'.
                Doesn't work for :execute and :normal.

                                                :topleft E442
:to[pleft] {cmd}
                Execute {cmd}.  If it contains a command that splits a window,
                it will appear at the top and occupy the full width of the Vim
                window.  When the split is vertical the window appears at the
                far left and occupies the full height of the Vim window.
                Doesn't work for :execute and :normal.

                                                :botright
:bo[tright] {cmd}
                Execute {cmd}.  If it contains a command that splits a window,
                it will appear at the bottom and occupy the full width of the
                Vim window.  When the split is vertical the window appears at
                the far right and occupies the full height of the Vim window.
                Doesn't work for :execute and :normal.

These command modifiers can be combined to make a vertically split window
occupy the full height.  Example: 
        :vertical topleft split tags
Opens a vertically split, full-height window on the "tags" file at the far
left of the Vim window.


Closing a window
----------------

CTRL-W q                                                CTRL-W_q
CTRL-W CTRL-Q                                           CTRL-W_CTRL-Q
:q[uit]         Quit current window.  When quitting the last window (not
                counting a help window), exit Vim.
                When 'hidden' is set, and there is only one window for the
                current buffer, it becomes hidden.
                When 'hidden' is not set, and there is only one window for the
                current buffer, and the buffer was changed, the command fails.
                (Note: CTRL-Q does not work on all terminals)

:q[uit]!        Quit current window.  If this was the last window for a buffer,
                any changes to that buffer are lost.  When quitting the last
                window (not counting help windows), exit Vim.  The contents of
                the buffer are lost, even when 'hidden' is set.

CTRL-W c                                        CTRL-W_c :clo :close
:clo[se][!]     Close current window.  When the 'hidden' option is set, or
                when the buffer was changed and the [!] is used, the buffer
                becomes hidden (unless there is another window editing it).
                When there is only one window in the current tab page and
                there is another tab page, this closes the current tab page.
                tab-page.
                This command fails when:                        E444
                - There is only one window on the screen.
                - When 'hidden' is not set, [!] is not used, the buffer has
                  changes, and there is no other window on this buffer.
                Changes to the buffer are not written and won't get lost, so
                this is a "safe" command.

CTRL-W CTRL-C                                           CTRL-W_CTRL-C
                You might have expected that CTRL-W CTRL-C closes the current
                window, but that does not work, because the CTRL-C cancels the
                command.

                                                        :hide
:hid[e]         Quit current window, unless it is the last window on the
                screen.  The buffer becomes hidden (unless there is another
                window editing it or 'bufhidden' is "unload" or "delete").
                If the window is the last one in the current tab page the tab
                page is closed. tab-page
                The value of 'hidden' is irrelevant for this command.
                Changes to the buffer are not written and won't get lost, so
                this is a "safe" command.

:hid[e] {cmd}   Execute {cmd} with 'hidden' is set.  The previous value of
                'hidden' is restored after {cmd} has been executed.
                Example: 
                    :hide edit Makefile
               This will edit "Makefile", and hide the current buffer if it
                has any changes.

CTRL-W o                                                CTRL-W_o E445
CTRL-W CTRL-O                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-O :on :only
:on[ly][!]      Make the current window the only one on the screen.  All other
                windows are closed.
                When the 'hidden' option is set, all buffers in closed windows
                become hidden.
                When 'hidden' is not set, and the 'autowrite' option is set,
                modified buffers are written.  Otherwise, windows that have
                buffers that are modified are not removed, unless the [!] is
                given, then they become hidden.  But modified buffers are
                never abandoned, so changes cannot get lost.

==============================================================================
4. Moving cursor to other windows                       window-move-cursor

CTRL-W <Down>                                   CTRL-W_<Down>
CTRL-W CTRL-J                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-J CTRL-W_j
CTRL-W j        Move cursor to Nth window below current one.  Uses the cursor
                position to select between alternatives.

CTRL-W <Up>                                     CTRL-W_<Up>
CTRL-W CTRL-K                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-K CTRL-W_k
CTRL-W k        Move cursor to Nth window above current one.  Uses the cursor
                position to select between alternatives.

CTRL-W <Left>                                   CTRL-W_<Left>
CTRL-W CTRL-H                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-H
CTRL-W <BS>                                     CTRL-W_<BS> CTRL-W_h
CTRL-W h        Move cursor to Nth window left of current one.  Uses the
                cursor position to select between alternatives.

CTRL-W <Right>                                  CTRL-W_<Right>
CTRL-W CTRL-L                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-L CTRL-W_l
CTRL-W l        Move cursor to Nth window right of current one.  Uses the
                cursor position to select between alternatives.

CTRL-W w                                        CTRL-W_w CTRL-W_CTRL-W
CTRL-W CTRL-W   Without count: move cursor to window below/right of the
                current one.  If there is no window below or right, go to
                top-left window.
                With count: go to Nth window (windows are numbered from
                top-left to bottom-right).  To obtain the window number see
                bufwinnr() and winnr().  When N is larger than the number
                of windows go to the last window.

                                                CTRL-W_W
CTRL-W W        Without count: move cursor to window above/left of current
                one.  If there is no window above or left, go to bottom-right
                window.  With count: go to Nth window, like with CTRL-W w.

CTRL-W t                                        CTRL-W_t CTRL-W_CTRL-T
CTRL-W CTRL-T   Move cursor to top-left window.

CTRL-W b                                        CTRL-W_b CTRL-W_CTRL-B
CTRL-W CTRL-B   Move cursor to bottom-right window.

CTRL-W p                                        CTRL-W_p CTRL-W_CTRL-P
CTRL-W CTRL-P   Go to previous (last accessed) window.

                                                CTRL-W_P E441
CTRL-W P        Go to preview window.  When there is no preview window this is
                an error.
                {not available when compiled without the |+quickfix| feature}

If Visual mode is active and the new window is not for the same buffer, the
Visual mode is ended.  If the window is on the same buffer, the cursor
position is set to keep the same Visual area selected.

                                                :winc :wincmd
These commands can also be executed with ":wincmd":

:[count]winc[md] {arg}
                Like executing CTRL-W [count] {arg}.  Example: 
                        :wincmd j
               Moves to the window below the current one.
                This command is useful when a Normal mode cannot be used (for
                the CursorHold autocommand event).  Or when a Normal mode
                command is inconvenient.
                The count can also be a window number.  Example: 
                        :exe nr . "wincmd w"
               This goes to window "nr".

==============================================================================
5. Moving windows around                                window-moving

CTRL-W r                                CTRL-W_r CTRL-W_CTRL-R E443
CTRL-W CTRL-R   Rotate windows downwards/rightwards.  The first window becomes
                the second one, the second one becomes the third one, etc.
                The last window becomes the first window.  The cursor remains
                in the same window.
                This only works within the row or column of windows that the
                current window is in.

                                                CTRL-W_R
CTRL-W R        Rotate windows upwards/leftwards.  The second window becomes
                the first one, the third one becomes the second one, etc.  The
                first window becomes the last window.  The cursor remains in
                the same window.
                This only works within the row or column of windows that the
                current window is in.

CTRL-W x                                        CTRL-W_x CTRL-W_CTRL-X
CTRL-W CTRL-X   Without count: Exchange current window with next one.  If there
                is no next window, exchange with previous window.
                With count: Exchange current window with Nth window (first
                window is 1).  The cursor is put in the other window.
                When vertical and horizontal window splits are mixed, the
                exchange is only done in the row or column of windows that the
                current window is in.

The following commands can be used to change the window layout.  For example,
when there are two vertically split windows, CTRL-W K will change that in
horizontally split windows.  CTRL-W H does it the other way around.

                                                CTRL-W_K
CTRL-W K        Move the current window to be at the very top, using the full
                width of the screen.  This works like closing the current
                window and then creating another one with ":topleft split",
                except that the current window contents is used for the new
                window.

                                                CTRL-W_J
CTRL-W J        Move the current window to be at the very bottom, using the
                full width of the screen.  This works like closing the current
                window and then creating another one with ":botright split",
                except that the current window contents is used for the new
                window.

                                                CTRL-W_H
CTRL-W H        Move the current window to be at the far left, using the
                full height of the screen.  This works like closing the
                current window and then creating another one with
                ":vert topleft split", except that the current window contents
                is used for the new window.
                {not available when compiled without the |+vertsplit| feature}

                                                CTRL-W_L
CTRL-W L        Move the current window to be at the far right, using the full
                height of the screen.  This works like closing the
                current window and then creating another one with
                ":vert botright split", except that the current window
                contents is used for the new window.
                {not available when compiled without the |+vertsplit| feature}

                                                CTRL-W_T
CTRL-W T        Move the current window to a new tab page.  This fails if
                there is only one window in the current tab page.
                When a count is specified the new tab page will be opened
                before the tab page with this index.  Otherwise it comes after
                the current tab page.

==============================================================================
6. Window resizing                                      window-resize

                                                CTRL-W_=
CTRL-W =        Make all windows (almost) equally high and wide, but use
                'winheight' and 'winwidth' for the current window.
                Windows with 'winfixheight' set keep their height and windows
                with 'winfixwidth' set keep their width.

:res[ize] -N                                    :res :resize CTRL-W_-
CTRL-W -        Decrease current window height by N (default 1).
                If used after :vertical: decrease width by N.

:res[ize] +N                                    CTRL-W_+
CTRL-W +        Increase current window height by N (default 1).
                If used after :vertical: increase width by N.

:res[ize] [N]
CTRL-W CTRL-_                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-_ CTRL-W__
CTRL-W _        Set current window height to N (default: highest possible).

z{nr}<CR>       Set current window height to {nr}.

                                                CTRL-W_<
CTRL-W <        Decrease current window width by N (default 1).

                                                CTRL-W_>
CTRL-W >        Increase current window width by N (default 1).

:vertical res[ize] [N]                  :vertical-resize CTRL-W_bar
CTRL-W |        Set current window width to N (default: widest possible).

You can also resize a window by dragging a status line up or down with the
mouse.  Or by dragging a vertical separator line left or right.  This only
works if the version of Vim that is being used supports the mouse and the
'mouse' option has been set to enable it.

The option 'winheight' ('wh') is used to set the minimal window height of the
current window.  This option is used each time another window becomes the
current window.  If the option is '0', it is disabled.  Set 'winheight' to a
very large value, e.g., '9999', to make the current window always fill all
available space.  Set it to a reasonable value, e.g., '10', to make editing in
the current window comfortable.

The equivalent 'winwidth' ('wiw') option is used to set the minimal width of
the current window.

When the option 'equalalways' ('ea') is set, all the windows are automatically
made the same size after splitting or closing a window.  If you don't set this
option, splitting a window will reduce the size of the current window and
leave the other windows the same.  When closing a window, the extra lines are
given to the window above it.

The 'eadirection' option limits the direction in which the 'equalalways'
option is applied.  The default "both" resizes in both directions.  When the
value is "ver" only the heights of windows are equalized.  Use this when you
have manually resized a vertically split window and want to keep this width.
Likewise, "hor" causes only the widths of windows to be equalized.

The option 'cmdheight' ('ch') is used to set the height of the command-line.
If you are annoyed by the hit-enter prompt for long messages, set this
option to 2 or 3.

If there is only one window, resizing that window will also change the command
line height.  If there are several windows, resizing the current window will
also change the height of the window below it (and sometimes the window above
it).

The minimal height and width of a window is set with 'winminheight' and
'winminwidth'.  These are hard values, a window will never become smaller.

==============================================================================
7. Argument and buffer list commands                    buffer-list

      args list                buffer list         meaning 
1. :[N]argument [N]     11. :[N]buffer [N]      to arg/buf N
2. :[N]next [file ..]   12. :[N]bnext [N]       to Nth next arg/buf
3. :[N]Next [N]         13. :[N]bNext [N]       to Nth previous arg/buf
4. :[N]previous [N]     14. :[N]bprevious [N]   to Nth previous arg/buf
5. :rewind / :first     15. :brewind / :bfirst  to first arg/buf
6. :last                16. :blast              to last arg/buf
7. :all                 17. :ball               edit all args/buffers
                        18. :unhide             edit all loaded buffers
                        19. :[N]bmod [N]        to Nth modified buf

  split & args list       split & buffer list      meaning 
21. :[N]sargument [N]   31. :[N]sbuffer [N]     split + to arg/buf N
22. :[N]snext [file ..] 32. :[N]sbnext [N]      split + to Nth next arg/buf
23. :[N]sNext [N]       33. :[N]sbNext [N]      split + to Nth previous arg/buf
24. :[N]sprevious [N]   34. :[N]sbprevious [N]  split + to Nth previous arg/buf
25. :srewind / :sfirst  35. :sbrewind / :sbfirst split + to first arg/buf
26. :slast              36. :sblast             split + to last arg/buf
27. :sall               37. :sball              edit all args/buffers
                        38. :sunhide            edit all loaded buffers
                        39. :[N]sbmod [N]       split + to Nth modified buf

40. :args               list of arguments
41. :buffers            list of buffers

The meaning of [N] depends on the command:
 [N] is number of buffers to go forward/backward on ?2, ?3, and ?4
 [N] is an argument number, defaulting to current argument, for 1 and 21
 [N] is a buffer number, defaulting to current buffer, for 11 and 31
 [N] is a count for 19 and 39

Note: ":next" is an exception, because it must accept a list of file names
for compatibility with Vi.


The argument list and multiple windows
--------------------------------------

The current position in the argument list can be different for each window.
Remember that when doing ":e file", the position in the argument list stays
the same, but you are not editing the file at that position.  To indicate
this, the file message (and the title, if you have one) shows
"(file (N) of M)", where "(N)" is the current position in the file list, and
"M" the number of files in the file list.

All the entries in the argument list are added to the buffer list.  Thus, you
can also get to them with the buffer list commands, like ":bnext".

:[N]al[l][!] [N]                                :al :all :sal :sall
:[N]sal[l][!] [N]
                Rearrange the screen to open one window for each argument.
                All other windows are closed.  When a count is given, this is
                the maximum number of windows to open.
                With the :tab modifier open a tab page for each argument.
                When there are more arguments than 'tabpagemax' further ones
                become split windows in the last tab page.
                When the 'hidden' option is set, all buffers in closed windows
                become hidden.
                When 'hidden' is not set, and the 'autowrite' option is set,
                modified buffers are written.  Otherwise, windows that have
                buffers that are modified are not removed, unless the [!] is
                given, then they become hidden.  But modified buffers are
                never abandoned, so changes cannot get lost.
                [N] is the maximum number of windows to open.  'winheight'
                also limits the number of windows opened ('winwidth' if
                :vertical was prepended).
                Buf/Win Enter/Leave autocommands are not executed for the new
                windows here, that's only done when they are really entered.

:[N]sa[rgument][!] [++opt] [+cmd] [N]                   :sa :sargument
                Short for ":split | argument [N]": split window and go to Nth
                argument.  But when there is no such argument, the window is
                not split.  Also see ++opt and +cmd.

:[N]sn[ext][!] [++opt] [+cmd] [file ..]                 :sn :snext
                Short for ":split | [N]next": split window and go to Nth next
                argument.  But when there is no next file, the window is not
                split.  Also see ++opt and +cmd.

:[N]spr[evious][!] [++opt] [+cmd] [N]                   :spr :sprevious
:[N]sN[ext][!] [++opt] [+cmd] [N]                       :sN :sNext
                Short for ":split | [N]Next": split window and go to Nth
                previous argument.  But when there is no previous file, the
                window is not split.  Also see ++opt and +cmd.

                                                :sre :srewind
:sre[wind][!] [++opt] [+cmd]
                Short for ":split | rewind": split window and go to first
                argument.  But when there is no argument list, the window is
                not split.  Also see ++opt and +cmd.

                                                :sfir :sfirst
:sfir[st] [++opt] [+cmd]
                Same as ":srewind".

                                                :sla :slast
:sla[st][!] [++opt] [+cmd]
                Short for ":split | last": split window and go to last
                argument.  But when there is no argument list, the window is
                not split.  Also see ++opt and +cmd.

                                                :dr :drop
:dr[op] [++opt] [+cmd] {file} ..
                Edit the first {file} in a window.
                - If the file is already open in a window change to that
                  window.
                - If the file is not open in a window edit the file in the
                  current window.  If the current buffer can't be abandoned,
                  the window is split first.
                The argument-list is set, like with the :next command.
                The purpose of this command is that it can be used from a
                program that wants Vim to edit another file, e.g., a debugger.
                When using the :tab modifier each argument is opened in a
                tab page.  The last window is used if it's empty.
                Also see ++opt and +cmd.
                {only available when compiled with a GUI}

==============================================================================
8. Do a command in all buffers or windows                       list-repeat

                                                        :windo
:windo {cmd}            Execute {cmd} in each window.
                        It works like doing this: 
                                CTRL-W t
                                :{cmd}
                                CTRL-W w
                                :{cmd}
                                etc.
                       This only operates in the current tab page.
                        When an error is detected on one window, further
                        windows will not be visited.
                        The last window (or where an error occurred) becomes
                        the current window.
                        {cmd} can contain '|' to concatenate several commands.
                        {cmd} must not open or close windows or reorder them.
                        {not in Vi} {not available when compiled without the
                        +listcmds feature}
                        Also see :tabdo, :argdo and :bufdo.

                                                        :bufdo
:bufdo[!] {cmd}         Execute {cmd} in each buffer in the buffer list.
                        It works like doing this: 
                                :bfirst
                                :{cmd}
                                :bnext
                                :{cmd}
                                etc.
                       When the current file can't be abandoned and the [!]
                        is not present, the command fails.
                        When an error is detected on one buffer, further
                        buffers will not be visited.
                        Unlisted buffers are skipped.
                        The last buffer (or where an error occurred) becomes
                        the current buffer.
                        {cmd} can contain '|' to concatenate several commands.
                        {cmd} must not delete buffers or add buffers to the
                        buffer list.
                        Note: While this command is executing, the Syntax
                        autocommand event is disabled by adding it to
                        'eventignore'.  This considerably speeds up editing
                        each buffer.
                        {not in Vi} {not available when compiled without the
                        +listcmds feature}
                        Also see :tabdo, :argdo and :windo.

Examples: 

        :windo set nolist nofoldcolumn | normal zn

This resets the 'list' option and disables folding in all windows. 

        :bufdo set fileencoding= | update

This resets the 'fileencoding' in each buffer and writes it if this changed
the buffer.  The result is that all buffers will use the 'encoding' encoding
(if conversion works properly).

==============================================================================
9. Tag or file name under the cursor                    window-tag

                                                        :sta :stag
:sta[g][!] [tagname]
                Does ":tag[!] [tagname]" and splits the window for the found
                tag.  See also :tag.

CTRL-W ]                                        CTRL-W_] CTRL-W_CTRL-]
CTRL-W CTRL-]   Split current window in two.  Use identifier under cursor as a
                tag and jump to it in the new upper window.
                In Visual mode uses the Visually selected text as a tag.
                Make new window N high.

                                                        CTRL-W_g]
CTRL-W g ]      Split current window in two.  Use identifier under cursor as a
                tag and perform ":tselect" on it in the new upper window.
                In Visual mode uses the Visually selected text as a tag.
                Make new window N high.

                                                        CTRL-W_g_CTRL-]
CTRL-W g CTRL-] Split current window in two.  Use identifier under cursor as a
                tag and perform ":tjump" on it in the new upper window.
                In Visual mode uses the Visually selected text as a tag.
                Make new window N high.

CTRL-W f                                        CTRL-W_f CTRL-W_CTRL-F
CTRL-W CTRL-F   Split current window in two.  Edit file name under cursor.
                Like ":split gf", but window isn't split if the file does not
                exist.
                Uses the 'path' variable as a list of directory names where to
                look for the file.  Also the path for current file is
                used to search for the file name.
                If the name is a hypertext link that looks like
                "type://machine/path", only "/path" is used.
                If a count is given, the count'th matching file is edited.
                {not available when the +file_in_path feature was disabled
                at compile time}

CTRL-W F                                                CTRL-W_F
                Split current window in two.  Edit file name under cursor and
                jump to the line number following the file name. See gF for
                details on how the line number is obtained.
                {not available when the +file_in_path feature was disabled
                at compile time}

CTRL-W gf                                               CTRL-W_gf
                Open a new tab page and edit the file name under the cursor.
                Like "tab split" and "gf", but the new tab page isn't created
                if the file does not exist.
                {not available when the +file_in_path feature was disabled
                at compile time}

CTRL-W gF                                               CTRL-W_gF
                Open a new tab page and edit the file name under the cursor
                and jump to the line number following the file name.  Like
                "tab split" and "gF", but the new tab page isn't created if
                the file does not exist.
                {not available when the +file_in_path feature was disabled
                at compile time}

Also see CTRL-W_CTRL-I: open window for an included file that includes
the keyword under the cursor.

==============================================================================
10. The preview window                          preview-window

The preview window is a special window to show (preview) another file.  It is
normally a small window used to show an include file or definition of a
function.
{not available when compiled without the |+quickfix| feature}

There can be only one preview window (per tab page).  It is created with one
of the commands below.  The 'previewheight' option can be set to specify the
height of the preview window when it's opened.  The 'previewwindow' option is
set in the preview window to be able to recognize it.  The 'winfixheight'
option is set to have it keep the same height when opening/closing other
windows.

                                                :pta :ptag
:pta[g][!] [tagname]
                Does ":tag[!] [tagname]" and shows the found tag in a
                "Preview" window without changing the current buffer or cursor
                position.  If a "Preview" window already exists, it is re-used
                (like a help window is).  If a new one is opened,
                'previewheight' is used for the height of the window.   See
                also :tag.
                See below for an example. CursorHold-example
                Small difference from :tag: When [tagname] is equal to the
                already displayed tag, the position in the matching tag list
                is not reset.  This makes the CursorHold example work after a
                :ptnext.

CTRL-W z                                        CTRL-W_z
CTRL-W CTRL-Z                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-Z :pc :pclose
:pc[lose][!]    Close any "Preview" window currently open.  When the 'hidden'
                option is set, or when the buffer was changed and the [!] is
                used, the buffer becomes hidden (unless there is another
                window editing it).  The command fails if any "Preview" buffer
                cannot be closed.  See also :close.

                                                        :pp :ppop
:[count]pp[op][!]
                Does ":[count]pop[!]" in the preview window.  See :pop and
                :ptag.  {not in Vi}

CTRL-W }                                                CTRL-W_}
                Use identifier under cursor as a tag and perform a :ptag on
                it.  Make the new Preview window (if required) N high.  If N is
                not given, 'previewheight' is used.

CTRL-W g }                                              CTRL-W_g}
                Use identifier under cursor as a tag and perform a :ptjump on
                it.  Make the new Preview window (if required) N high.  If N is
                not given, 'previewheight' is used.

                                                        :ped :pedit
:ped[it][!] [++opt] [+cmd] {file}
                Edit {file} in the preview window.  The preview window is
                opened like with :ptag.  The current window and cursor
                position isn't changed.  Useful example: 
                        :pedit +/fputc /usr/include/stdio.h

                                                        :ps :psearch
:[range]ps[earch][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
                Works like :ijump but shows the found match in the preview
                window.  The preview window is opened like with :ptag.  The
                current window and cursor position isn't changed.  Useful
                example: 
                        :psearch popen
               Like with the :ptag command, you can use this to
                automatically show information about the word under the
                cursor.  This is less clever than using :ptag, but you don't
                need a tags file and it will also find matches in system
                include files.  Example: 
  :au! CursorHold *.[ch] nested exe "silent! psearch " . expand("<cword>")
               Warning: This can be slow.

Example                                         CursorHold-example  

  :au! CursorHold *.[ch] nested exe "silent! ptag " . expand("<cword>")

This will cause a ":ptag" to be executed for the keyword under the cursor,
when the cursor hasn't moved for the time set with 'updatetime'.  The "nested"
makes other autocommands be executed, so that syntax highlighting works in the
preview window.  The "silent!" avoids an error message when the tag could not
be found.  Also see CursorHold.  To disable this again: 

  :au! CursorHold

A nice addition is to highlight the found tag, avoid the ":ptag" when there
is no word under the cursor, and a few other things: 

  :au! CursorHold *.[ch] nested call PreviewWord()
  :func PreviewWord()
  :  if &previewwindow                  " don't do this in the preview window
  :    return
  :  endif
  :  let w = expand("<cword>")          " get the word under cursor
  :  if w =~ '\a'                       " if the word contains a letter
  :
  :    " Delete any existing highlight before showing another tag
  :    silent! wincmd P                 " jump to preview window
  :    if &previewwindow                        " if we really get there...
  :      match none                     " delete existing highlight
  :      wincmd p                       " back to old window
  :    endif
  :
  :    " Try displaying a matching tag for the word under the cursor
  :    try
  :       exe "ptag " . w
  :    catch
  :      return
  :    endtry
  :
  :    silent! wincmd P                 " jump to preview window
  :    if &previewwindow                " if we really get there...
  :      if has("folding")
  :        silent! .foldopen            " don't want a closed fold
  :      endif
  :      call search("$", "b")          " to end of previous line
  :      let w = substitute(w, '\\', '\\\\', "")
  :      call search('\<\V' . w . '\>') " position cursor on match
  :      " Add a match highlight to the word at this position
  :      hi previewWord term=bold ctermbg=green guibg=green
  :      exe 'match previewWord "\%' . line(".") . 'l\%' . col(".") . 'c\k*"'
  :      wincmd p                       " back to old window
  :    endif
  :  endif
  :endfun

==============================================================================
11. Using hidden buffers                                buffer-hidden

A hidden buffer is not displayed in a window, but is still loaded into memory.
This makes it possible to jump from file to file, without the need to read or
write the file every time you get another buffer in a window.
{not available when compiled without the |+listcmds| feature}

                                                        :buffer-!
If the option 'hidden' ('hid') is set, abandoned buffers are kept for all
commands that start editing another file: ":edit", ":next", ":tag", etc.  The
commands that move through the buffer list sometimes make the current buffer
hidden although the 'hidden' option is not set.  This happens when a buffer is
modified, but is forced (with '!') to be removed from a window, and
'autowrite' is off or the buffer can't be written.

You can make a hidden buffer not hidden by starting to edit it with any
command.  Or by deleting it with the ":bdelete" command.

The 'hidden' is global, it is used for all buffers.  The 'bufhidden' option
can be used to make an exception for a specific buffer.  It can take these
values:
        <empty>         Use the value of 'hidden'.
        hide            Hide this buffer, also when 'hidden' is not set.
        unload          Don't hide but unload this buffer, also when 'hidden'
                        is set.
        delete          Delete the buffer.

                                                        hidden-quit
When you try to quit Vim while there is a hidden, modified buffer, you will
get an error message and Vim will make that buffer the current buffer.  You
can then decide to write this buffer (":wq") or quit without writing (":q!").
Be careful: there may be more hidden, modified buffers!

A buffer can also be unlisted.  This means it exists, but it is not in the
list of buffers. unlisted-buffer


:files[!]                                       :files
:buffers[!]                                     :buffers :ls
:ls[!]          Show all buffers.  Example:

                        1 #h   "/test/text"             line 1 
                        2u     "asdf"                   line 0 
                        3 %a + "version.c"              line 1 

                When the [!] is included the list will show unlisted buffers
                (the term "unlisted" is a bit confusing then...).

                Each buffer has a unique number.  That number will not change,
                so you can always go to a specific buffer with ":buffer N" or
                "N CTRL-^", where N is the buffer number.

                Indicators (chars in the same column are mutually exclusive):
                u       an unlisted buffer (only displayed when [!] is used)
                           unlisted-buffer
                 %      the buffer in the current window
                 #      the alternate buffer for ":e #" and CTRL-^
                  a     an active buffer: it is loaded and visible
                  h     a hidden buffer: It is loaded, but currently not
                           displayed in a window hidden-buffer
                   -    a buffer with 'modifiable' off
                   =    a readonly buffer
                    +   a modified buffer
                    x   a buffer with read errors

                                                :bad :badd
:bad[d] [+lnum] {fname}
                Add file name {fname} to the buffer list, without loading it.
                If "lnum" is specified, the cursor will be positioned at that
                line when the buffer is first entered.  Note that other
                commands after the + will be ignored.

:[N]bd[elete][!]                        :bd :bdel :bdelete E516
:bd[elete][!] [N]
                Unload buffer [N] (default: current buffer) and delete it from
                the buffer list.  If the buffer was changed, this fails,
                unless when [!] is specified, in which case changes are lost.
                The file remains unaffected.  Any windows for this buffer are
                closed.  If buffer [N] is the current buffer, another buffer
                will be displayed instead.  This is the most recent entry in
                the jump list that points into a loaded buffer.
                Actually, the buffer isn't completely deleted, it is removed
                from the buffer list unlisted-buffer and option values,
                variables and mappings/abbreviations for the buffer are
                cleared.

:bdelete[!] {bufname}                                           E93 E94
                Like ":bdelete[!] [N]", but buffer given by name.  Note that a
                buffer whose name is a number cannot be referenced by that
                name; use the buffer number instead.  Insert a backslash
                before a space in a buffer name.

:bdelete[!] N1 N2 ...
                Do ":bdelete[!]" for buffer N1, N2, etc.  The arguments can be
                buffer numbers or buffer names (but not buffer names that are
                a number).  Insert a backslash before a space in a buffer
                name.

:N,Mbdelete[!]  Do ":bdelete[!]" for all buffers in the range N to M
                inclusive.

:[N]bw[ipeout][!]                       :bw :bwipe :bwipeout E517
:bw[ipeout][!] {bufname}
:N,Mbw[ipeout][!]
:bw[ipeout][!] N1 N2 ...
                Like :bdelete, but really delete the buffer.  Everything
                related to the buffer is lost.  All marks in this buffer
                become invalid, option settings are lost, etc.  Don't use this
                unless you know what you are doing.

:[N]bun[load][!]                                :bun :bunload E515
:bun[load][!] [N]
                Unload buffer [N] (default: current buffer).  The memory
                allocated for this buffer will be freed.  The buffer remains
                in the buffer list.
                If the buffer was changed, this fails, unless when [!] is
                specified, in which case the changes are lost.
                Any windows for this buffer are closed.  If buffer [N] is the
                current buffer, another buffer will be displayed instead.
                This is the most recent entry in the jump list that points
                into a loaded buffer.

:bunload[!] {bufname}
                Like ":bunload[!] [N]", but buffer given by name.  Note that a
                buffer whose name is a number cannot be referenced by that
                name; use the buffer number instead.  Insert a backslash
                before a space in a buffer name.

:N,Mbunload[!]  Do ":bunload[!]" for all buffers in the range N to M
                inclusive.

:bunload[!] N1 N2 ...
                Do ":bunload[!]" for buffer N1, N2, etc.  The arguments can be
                buffer numbers or buffer names (but not buffer names that are
                a number).  Insert a backslash before a space in a buffer
                name.

:[N]b[uffer][!] [+cmd] [N]              :b :bu :buf :buffer E86
                Edit buffer [N] from the buffer list.  If [N] is not given,
                the current buffer remains being edited.  See :buffer-! for
                [!].  This will also edit a buffer that is not in the buffer
                list, without setting the 'buflisted' flag.
                Also see |+cmd.

:[N]b[uffer][!] [+cmd] {bufname}
                Edit buffer for {bufname} from the buffer list.  See
                :buffer-! for [!].  This will also edit a buffer that is not
                in the buffer list, without setting the 'buflisted' flag.
                Also see |+cmd.

:[N]sb[uffer] [+cmd] [N]                                :sb :sbuffer
                Split window and edit buffer [N] from the buffer list.  If [N]
                is not given, the current buffer is edited.  Respects the
                "useopen" setting of 'switchbuf' when splitting.  This will
                also edit a buffer that is not in the buffer list, without
                setting the 'buflisted' flag.
                Also see |+cmd.

:[N]sb[uffer] [+cmd] {bufname}
                Split window and edit buffer for {bufname} from the buffer
                list.  This will also edit a buffer that is not in the buffer
                list, without setting the 'buflisted' flag.
                Note: If what you want to do is split the buffer, make a copy
                under another name, you can do it this way: 
                        :w foobar | sp #
               Also see |+cmd.

:[N]bn[ext][!] [+cmd] [N]                               :bn :bnext E87
                Go to [N]th next buffer in buffer list.  [N] defaults to one.
                Wraps around the end of the buffer list.
                See :buffer-! for [!].
                Also see |+cmd.
                If you are in a help buffer, this takes you to the next help
                buffer (if there is one).  Similarly, if you are in a normal
                (non-help) buffer, this takes you to the next normal buffer.
                This is so that if you have invoked help, it doesn't get in
                the way when you're browsing code/text buffers.  The next three
                commands also work like this.


                                                        :sbn :sbnext
:[N]sbn[ext] [+cmd] [N]
                Split window and go to [N]th next buffer in buffer list.
                Wraps around the end of the buffer list.  Uses 'switchbuf'
                Also see |+cmd.

:[N]bN[ext][!] [+cmd] [N]               :bN :bNext :bp :bprevious E88
:[N]bp[revious][!] [+cmd] [N]
                Go to [N]th previous buffer in buffer list.  [N] defaults to
                one.  Wraps around the start of the buffer list.
                See :buffer-! for [!] and 'switchbuf'.
                Also see |+cmd.

:[N]sbN[ext] [+cmd] [N]                 :sbN :sbNext :sbp :sbprevious
:[N]sbp[revious] [+cmd] [N]
                Split window and go to [N]th previous buffer in buffer list.
                Wraps around the start of the buffer list.
                Uses 'switchbuf'.
                Also see |+cmd.

:br[ewind][!] [+cmd]                                    :br :brewind
                Go to first buffer in buffer list.  If the buffer list is
                empty, go to the first unlisted buffer.
                See :buffer-! for [!].

:bf[irst] [+cmd]                                        :bf :bfirst
                Same as :brewind.
                Also see +cmd.

:sbr[ewind] [+cmd]                                      :sbr :sbrewind
                Split window and go to first buffer in buffer list.  If the
                buffer list is empty, go to the first unlisted buffer.
                Respects the 'switchbuf' option.
                Also see +cmd.

:sbf[irst] [+cmd]                                       :sbf :sbfirst
                Same as ":sbrewind".

:bl[ast][!] [+cmd]                                      :bl :blast
                Go to last buffer in buffer list.  If the buffer list is
                empty, go to the last unlisted buffer.
                See :buffer-! for [!].

:sbl[ast] [+cmd]                                        :sbl :sblast
                Split window and go to last buffer in buffer list.  If the
                buffer list is empty, go to the last unlisted buffer.
                Respects 'switchbuf' option.

:[N]bm[odified][!] [+cmd] [N]                   :bm :bmodified E84
                Go to [N]th next modified buffer.  Note: this command also
                finds unlisted buffers.  If there is no modified buffer the
                command fails.

:[N]sbm[odified] [+cmd] [N]                             :sbm :sbmodified
                Split window and go to [N]th next modified buffer.
                Respects 'switchbuf' option.
                Note: this command also finds buffers not in the buffer list.

:[N]unh[ide] [N]                        :unh :unhide :sun :sunhide
:[N]sun[hide] [N]
                Rearrange the screen to open one window for each loaded buffer
                in the buffer list.  When a count is given, this is the
                maximum number of windows to open.

:[N]ba[ll] [N]                                  :ba :ball :sba :sball
:[N]sba[ll] [N] Rearrange the screen to open one window for each buffer in
                the buffer list.  When a count is given, this is the maximum
                number of windows to open.  'winheight' also limits the number
                of windows opened ('winwidth' if :vertical was prepended).
                Buf/Win Enter/Leave autocommands are not executed for the new
                windows here, that's only done when they are really entered.
                When the :tab modifier is used new windows are opened in a
                new tab, up to 'tabpagemax'.

Note: All the commands above that start editing another buffer, keep the
'readonly' flag as it was.  This differs from the ":edit" command, which sets
the 'readonly' flag each time the file is read.

==============================================================================
12. Special kinds of buffers                    special-buffers

Instead of containing the text of a file, buffers can also be used for other
purposes.  A few options can be set to change the behavior of a buffer:
        'bufhidden'     what happens when the buffer is no longer displayed
                        in a window.
        'buftype'       what kind of a buffer this is
        'swapfile'      whether the buffer will have a swap file
        'buflisted'     buffer shows up in the buffer list

A few useful kinds of a buffer:

quickfix        Used to contain the error list or the location list.  See
                :cwindow and :lwindow.  This command sets the 'buftype'
                option to "quickfix".  You are not supposed to change this!
                'swapfile' is off.

help            Contains a help file.  Will only be created with the :help
                command.  The flag that indicates a help buffer is internal
                and can't be changed.  The 'buflisted' option will be reset
                for a help buffer.

directory       Displays directory contents.  Can be used by a file explorer
                plugin.  The buffer is created with these settings: 
                        :setlocal buftype=nowrite
                        :setlocal bufhidden=delete
                        :setlocal noswapfile
               The buffer name is the name of the directory and is adjusted
                when using the :cd command.

scratch         Contains text that can be discarded at any time.  It is kept
                when closing the window, it must be deleted explicitly.
                Settings: 
                        :setlocal buftype=nofile
                        :setlocal bufhidden=hide
                        :setlocal noswapfile
               The buffer name can be used to identify the buffer, if you
                give it a meaningful name.

                                                unlisted-buffer
unlisted        The buffer is not in the buffer list.  It is not used for
                normal editing, but to show a help file, remember a file name
                or marks.  The ":bdelete" command will also set this option,
                thus it doesn't completely delete the buffer.  Settings: 
                        :setlocal nobuflisted


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