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motion.txt    For Vim version 7.4.  Last change: 2014 Feb 11


                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar


Cursor motions                                  cursor-motions navigation

These commands move the cursor position.  If the new position is off of the
screen, the screen is scrolled to show the cursor (see also 'scrolljump' and
'scrolloff' options).

1. Motions and operators        operator
2. Left-right motions           left-right-motions
3. Up-down motions              up-down-motions
4. Word motions                 word-motions
5. Text object motions          object-motions
6. Text object selection        object-select
7. Marks                        mark-motions
8. Jumps                        jump-motions
9. Various motions              various-motions

General remarks:

If you want to know where you are in the file use the "CTRL-G" command
CTRL-G or the "g CTRL-G" command g_CTRL-G.  If you set the 'ruler' option,
the cursor position is continuously shown in the status line (which slows down
Vim a little).

Experienced users prefer the hjkl keys because they are always right under
their fingers.  Beginners often prefer the arrow keys, because they do not
know what the hjkl keys do.  The mnemonic value of hjkl is clear from looking
at the keyboard.  Think of j as an arrow pointing downwards.

The 'virtualedit' option can be set to make it possible to move the cursor to
positions where there is no character or halfway a character.

==============================================================================
1. Motions and operators                                operator

The motion commands can be used after an operator command, to have the command
operate on the text that was moved over.  That is the text between the cursor
position before and after the motion.  Operators are generally used to delete
or change text.  The following operators are available:

        c     c       change
        d     d       delete
        y     y       yank into register (does not change the text)
        ~     ~       swap case (only if 'tildeop' is set)
        g~    g~      swap case
        gu    gu      make lowercase
        gU    gU      make uppercase
        !     !       filter through an external program
        =     =       filter through 'equalprg' or C-indenting if empty
        gq    gq      text formatting
        g?    g?      ROT13 encoding
        >     >       shift right
        <     <       shift left
        zf    zf      define a fold
        g@    g@      call function set with the 'operatorfunc' option

If the motion includes a count and the operator also had a count before it,
the two counts are multiplied.  For example: "2d3w" deletes six words.

After applying the operator the cursor is mostly left at the start of the text
that was operated upon.  For example, "yfe" doesn't move the cursor, but "yFe"
moves the cursor leftwards to the "e" where the yank started.

                                                linewise characterwise
The operator either affects whole lines, or the characters between the start
and end position.  Generally, motions that move between lines affect lines
(are linewise), and motions that move within a line affect characters (are
characterwise).  However, there are some exceptions.

                                                exclusive inclusive
A character motion is either inclusive or exclusive.  When inclusive, the
start and end position of the motion are included in the operation.  When
exclusive, the last character towards the end of the buffer is not included.
Linewise motions always include the start and end position.

Which motions are linewise, inclusive or exclusive is mentioned with the
command.  There are however, two general exceptions:
1. If the motion is exclusive and the end of the motion is in column 1, the
   end of the motion is moved to the end of the previous line and the motion
   becomes inclusive.  Example: "}" moves to the first line after a paragraph,
   but "d}" will not include that line.
                                                exclusive-linewise
2. If the motion is exclusive, the end of the motion is in column 1 and the
   start of the motion was at or before the first non-blank in the line, the
   motion becomes linewise.  Example: If a paragraph begins with some blanks
   and you do "d}" while standing on the first non-blank, all the lines of
   the paragraph are deleted, including the blanks.  If you do a put now, the
   deleted lines will be inserted below the cursor position.

Note that when the operator is pending (the operator command is typed, but the
motion isn't yet), a special set of mappings can be used.  See :omap.

Instead of first giving the operator and then a motion you can use Visual
mode: mark the start of the text with "v", move the cursor to the end of the
text that is to be affected and then hit the operator.  The text between the
start and the cursor position is highlighted, so you can see what text will
be operated upon.  This allows much more freedom, but requires more key
strokes and has limited redo functionality.  See the chapter on Visual mode
Visual-mode.

You can use a ":" command for a motion.  For example "d:call FindEnd()".
But this can't be repeated with "." if the command is more than one line.
This can be repeated: 
        d:call search("f")<CR>
This cannot be repeated: 
        d:if 1<CR>
           call search("f")<CR>
        endif<CR>
Note that when using ":" any motion becomes characterwise exclusive.


FORCING A MOTION TO BE LINEWISE, CHARACTERWISE OR BLOCKWISE

When a motion is not of the type you would like to use, you can force another
type by using "v", "V" or CTRL-V just after the operator.
Example: 
        dj
deletes two lines 
        dvj
deletes from the cursor position until the character below the cursor 
        d<C-V>j
deletes the character under the cursor and the character below the cursor. 

Be careful with forcing a linewise movement to be used characterwise or
blockwise, the column may not always be defined.

                                                        o_v
v               When used after an operator, before the motion command: Force
                the operator to work characterwise, also when the motion is
                linewise.  If the motion was linewise, it will become
                exclusive.
                If the motion already was characterwise, toggle
                inclusive/exclusive.  This can be used to make an exclusive
                motion inclusive and an inclusive motion exclusive.

                                                        o_V
V               When used after an operator, before the motion command: Force
                the operator to work linewise, also when the motion is
                characterwise.

                                                        o_CTRL-V
CTRL-V          When used after an operator, before the motion command: Force
                the operator to work blockwise.  This works like Visual block
                mode selection, with the corners defined by the cursor
                position before and after the motion.

==============================================================================
2. Left-right motions                                   left-right-motions

These commands move the cursor to the specified column in the current line.
They stop at the first column and at the end of the line, except "$", which
may move to one of the next lines.  See 'whichwrap' option to make some of the
commands move across line boundaries.

h               or                                      h
<Left>          or                                      <Left>
CTRL-H          or                                      CTRL-H <BS>
<BS>                    [count] characters to the left.  exclusive motion.
                        Note: If you prefer <BS> to delete a character, use
                        the mapping:
                                :map CTRL-V<BS>         X
                        (to enter "CTRL-V<BS>" type the CTRL-V key, followed
                        by the <BS> key)
                        See :fixdel if the <BS> key does not do what you
                        want.

l               or                                      l
<Right>         or                                      <Right> <Space>
<Space>                 [count] characters to the right.  exclusive motion.

                                                        0
0                       To the first character of the line.  exclusive
                        motion.

                                                        <Home> <kHome>
<Home>                  To the first character of the line.  exclusive
                        motion.  When moving up or down next, stay in same
                        TEXT column (if possible).  Most other commands stay
                        in the same SCREEN column.  <Home> works like "1|",
                        which differs from "0" when the line starts with a
                        <Tab>.  {not in Vi}

                                                        ^
^                       To the first non-blank character of the line.
                        exclusive motion.

                                                        $ <End> <kEnd>
$  or <End>             To the end of the line.  When a count is given also go
                        [count - 1] lines downward inclusive.
                        In Visual mode the cursor goes to just after the last
                        character in the line.
                        When 'virtualedit' is active, "$" may move the cursor
                        back from past the end of the line to the last
                        character in the line.

                                                        g_
g_                      To the last non-blank character of the line and
                        [count - 1] lines downward inclusive. {not in Vi}

                                                        g0 g<Home>
g0 or g<Home>           When lines wrap ('wrap' on): To the first character of
                        the screen line.  exclusive motion.  Differs from
                        "0" when a line is wider than the screen.
                        When lines don't wrap ('wrap' off): To the leftmost
                        character of the current line that is on the screen.
                        Differs from "0" when the first character of the line
                        is not on the screen.  {not in Vi}

                                                        g^
g^                      When lines wrap ('wrap' on): To the first non-blank
                        character of the screen line.  exclusive motion.
                        Differs from "^" when a line is wider than the screen.
                        When lines don't wrap ('wrap' off): To the leftmost
                        non-blank character of the current line that is on the
                        screen.  Differs from "^" when the first non-blank
                        character of the line is not on the screen.  {not in
                        Vi}

                                                        gm
gm                      Like "g0", but half a screenwidth to the right (or as
                        much as possible). {not in Vi}

                                                        g$ g<End>
g$ or g<End>            When lines wrap ('wrap' on): To the last character of
                        the screen line and [count - 1] screen lines downward
                        inclusive.  Differs from "$" when a line is wider
                        than the screen.
                        When lines don't wrap ('wrap' off): To the rightmost
                        character of the current line that is visible on the
                        screen.  Differs from "$" when the last character of
                        the line is not on the screen or when a count is used.
                        Additionally, vertical movements keep the column,
                        instead of going to the end of the line.
                        When 'virtualedit' is enabled moves to the end of the
                        screen line.
                        {not in Vi}

                                                        bar
|                       To screen column [count] in the current line.
                        exclusive motion.  Ceci n'est pas une pipe.

                                                        f
f{char}                 To [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the right.  The
                        cursor is placed on {char} inclusive.
                        {char} can be entered as a digraph digraph-arg.
                        When 'encoding' is set to Unicode, composing
                        characters may be used, see utf-8-char-arg.
                        :lmap mappings apply to {char}.  The CTRL-^ command
                        in Insert mode can be used to switch this on/off
                        i_CTRL-^.

                                                        F
F{char}                 To the [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the left.
                        The cursor is placed on {char} exclusive.
                        {char} can be entered like with the f command.

                                                        t
t{char}                 Till before [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the
                        right.  The cursor is placed on the character left of
                        {char} inclusive.
                        {char} can be entered like with the f command.

                                                        T
T{char}                 Till after [count]'th occurrence of {char} to the
                        left.  The cursor is placed on the character right of
                        {char} exclusive.
                        {char} can be entered like with the f command.

                                                        ;
;                       Repeat latest f, t, F or T [count] times. See cpo-;

                                                        ,
,                       Repeat latest f, t, F or T in opposite direction
                        [count] times. See also cpo-;

==============================================================================
3. Up-down motions                                      up-down-motions

k               or                                      k
<Up>            or                                      <Up> CTRL-P
CTRL-P                  [count] lines upward linewise.

j               or                                      j
<Down>          or                                      <Down>
CTRL-J          or                                      CTRL-J
<NL>            or                                      <NL> CTRL-N
CTRL-N                  [count] lines downward linewise.

gk              or                                      gk g<Up>
g<Up>                   [count] display lines upward.  exclusive motion.
                        Differs from 'k' when lines wrap, and when used with
                        an operator, because it's not linewise.  {not in Vi}

gj              or                                      gj g<Down>
g<Down>                 [count] display lines downward.  exclusive motion.
                        Differs from 'j' when lines wrap, and when used with
                        an operator, because it's not linewise.  {not in Vi}

                                                        -
-  <minus>              [count] lines upward, on the first non-blank
                        character linewise.

+               or                                      +
CTRL-M          or                                      CTRL-M <CR>
<CR>                    [count] lines downward, on the first non-blank
                        character linewise.

                                                        _
_  <underscore>         [count] - 1 lines downward, on the first non-blank
                        character linewise.

                                                        G
G                       Goto line [count], default last line, on the first
                        non-blank character linewise.  If 'startofline' not
                        set, keep the same column.
                        G is a one of jump-motions.

                                                        <C-End>
<C-End>                 Goto line [count], default last line, on the last
                        character inclusive. {not in Vi}

<C-Home>        or                                      gg <C-Home>
gg                      Goto line [count], default first line, on the first
                        non-blank character linewise.  If 'startofline' not
                        set, keep the same column.

                                                        :[range]
:[range]                Set the cursor on the last line number in [range].
                        [range] can also be just one line number, e.g., ":1"
                        or ":'m".
                        In contrast with G this command does not modify the
                        jumplist.
                                                        N%
{count}%                Go to {count} percentage in the file, on the first
                        non-blank in the line linewise.  To compute the new
                        line number this formula is used:
                            ({count} * number-of-lines + 99) / 100
                        See also 'startofline' option.  {not in Vi}

:[range]go[to] [count]                                  :go :goto go
[count]go               Go to [count] byte in the buffer.  Default [count] is
                        one, start of the file.  When giving [range], the
                        last number in it used as the byte count.  End-of-line
                        characters are counted depending on the current
                        'fileformat' setting.
                        Also see the line2byte() function, and the 'o'
                        option in 'statusline'.
                        {not in Vi}
                        {not available when compiled without the
                        +byte_offset feature}

These commands move to the specified line.  They stop when reaching the first
or the last line.  The first two commands put the cursor in the same column
(if possible) as it was after the last command that changed the column,
except after the "$" command, then the cursor will be put on the last
character of the line.

If "k", "-" or CTRL-P is used with a [count] and there are less than [count]
lines above the cursor and the 'cpo' option includes the "-" flag it is an
error. cpo--.

==============================================================================
4. Word motions                                         word-motions

<S-Right>       or                                      <S-Right> w
w                       [count] words forward.  exclusive motion.

<C-Right>       or                                      <C-Right> W
W                       [count] WORDS forward.  exclusive motion.

                                                        e
e                       Forward to the end of word [count] inclusive.
                        Does not stop in an empty line.

                                                        E
E                       Forward to the end of WORD [count] inclusive.
                        Does not stop in an empty line.

<S-Left>        or                                      <S-Left> b
b                       [count] words backward.  exclusive motion.

<C-Left>        or                                      <C-Left> B
B                       [count] WORDS backward.  exclusive motion.

                                                        ge
ge                      Backward to the end of word [count] inclusive.

                                                        gE
gE                      Backward to the end of WORD [count] inclusive.

These commands move over words or WORDS.
                                                        word
A word consists of a sequence of letters, digits and underscores, or a
sequence of other non-blank characters, separated with white space (spaces,
tabs, <EOL>).  This can be changed with the 'iskeyword' option.  An empty line
is also considered to be a word.
                                                        WORD
A WORD consists of a sequence of non-blank characters, separated with white
space.  An empty line is also considered to be a WORD.

A sequence of folded lines is counted for one word of a single character.
"w" and "W", "e" and "E" move to the start/end of the first word or WORD after
a range of folded lines.  "b" and "B" move to the start of the first word or
WORD before the fold.

Special case: "cw" and "cW" are treated like "ce" and "cE" if the cursor is
on a non-blank.  This is because "cw" is interpreted as change-word, and a
word does not include the following white space.  {Vi: "cw" when on a blank
followed by other blanks changes only the first blank; this is probably a
bug, because "dw" deletes all the blanks}

Another special case: When using the "w" motion in combination with an
operator and the last word moved over is at the end of a line, the end of
that word becomes the end of the operated text, not the first word in the
next line.

The original Vi implementation of "e" is buggy.  For example, the "e" command
will stop on the first character of a line if the previous line was empty.
But when you use "2e" this does not happen.  In Vim "ee" and "2e" are the
same, which is more logical.  However, this causes a small incompatibility
between Vi and Vim.

==============================================================================
5. Text object motions                                  object-motions

                                                        (
(                       [count] sentences backward.  exclusive motion.

                                                        )
)                       [count] sentences forward.  exclusive motion.

                                                        {
{                       [count] paragraphs backward.  exclusive motion.

                                                        }
}                       [count] paragraphs forward.  exclusive motion.

                                                        ]]
]]                      [count] sections forward or to the next '{' in the
                        first column.  When used after an operator, then also
                        stops below a '}' in the first column.  exclusive
                        Note that exclusive-linewise often applies.

                                                        ][
][                      [count] sections forward or to the next '}' in the
                        first column.  exclusive
                        Note that exclusive-linewise often applies.

                                                        [[
[[                      [count] sections backward or to the previous '{' in
                        the first column.  exclusive
                        Note that exclusive-linewise often applies.

                                                        []
[]                      [count] sections backward or to the previous '}' in
                        the first column.  exclusive
                        Note that exclusive-linewise often applies.

These commands move over three kinds of text objects.

                                                        sentence
A sentence is defined as ending at a '.', '!' or '?' followed by either the
end of a line, or by a space or tab.  Any number of closing ')', ']', '"'
and ''' characters may appear after the '.', '!' or '?' before the spaces,
tabs or end of line.  A paragraph and section boundary is also a sentence
boundary.
If the 'J' flag is present in 'cpoptions', at least two spaces have to
follow the punctuation mark; <Tab>s are not recognized as white space.
The definition of a sentence cannot be changed.

                                                        paragraph
A paragraph begins after each empty line, and also at each of a set of
paragraph macros, specified by the pairs of characters in the 'paragraphs'
option.  The default is "IPLPPPQPP TPHPLIPpLpItpplpipbp", which corresponds to
the macros ".IP", ".LP", etc.  (These are nroff macros, so the dot must be in
the first column).  A section boundary is also a paragraph boundary.
Note that a blank line (only containing white space) is NOT a paragraph
boundary.
Also note that this does not include a '{' or '}' in the first column.  When
the '{' flag is in 'cpoptions' then '{' in the first column is used as a
paragraph boundary posix.

                                                        section
A section begins after a form-feed (<C-L>) in the first column and at each of
a set of section macros, specified by the pairs of characters in the
'sections' option.  The default is "SHNHH HUnhsh", which defines a section to
start at the nroff macros ".SH", ".NH", ".H", ".HU", ".nh" and ".sh".

The "]" and "[" commands stop at the '{' or '}' in the first column.  This is
useful to find the start or end of a function in a C program.  Note that the
first character of the command determines the search direction and the
second character the type of brace found.

If your '{' or '}' are not in the first column, and you would like to use "[["
and "]]" anyway, try these mappings: 
   :map [[ ?{<CR>w99[{
   :map ][ /}<CR>b99]}
   :map ]] j0[[%/{<CR>
   :map [] k$][%?}<CR>
[type these literally, see <>]

==============================================================================
6. Text object selection                        object-select text-objects
                                                v_a v_i

This is a series of commands that can only be used while in Visual mode or
after an operator.  The commands that start with "a" select "a"n object
including white space, the commands starting with "i" select an "inner" object
without white space, or just the white space.  Thus the "inner" commands
always select less text than the "a" commands.

These commands are {not in Vi}.
These commands are not available when the +textobjects feature has been
disabled at compile time.
Also see gn and gN, operating on the last search pattern.

                                                        v_aw aw
aw                      "a word", select [count] words (see word).
                        Leading or trailing white space is included, but not
                        counted.
                        When used in Visual linewise mode "aw" switches to
                        Visual characterwise mode.

                                                        v_iw iw
iw                      "inner word", select [count] words (see word).
                        White space between words is counted too.
                        When used in Visual linewise mode "iw" switches to
                        Visual characterwise mode.

                                                        v_aW aW
aW                      "a WORD", select [count] WORDs (see WORD).
                        Leading or trailing white space is included, but not
                        counted.
                        When used in Visual linewise mode "aW" switches to
                        Visual characterwise mode.

                                                        v_iW iW
iW                      "inner WORD", select [count] WORDs (see WORD).
                        White space between words is counted too.
                        When used in Visual linewise mode "iW" switches to
                        Visual characterwise mode.

                                                        v_as as
as                      "a sentence", select [count] sentences (see
                        sentence).
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

                                                        v_is is
is                      "inner sentence", select [count] sentences (see
                        sentence).
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

                                                        v_ap ap
ap                      "a paragraph", select [count] paragraphs (see
                        paragraph).
                        Exception: a blank line (only containing white space)
                        is also a paragraph boundary.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made linewise.

                                                        v_ip ip
ip                      "inner paragraph", select [count] paragraphs (see
                        paragraph).
                        Exception: a blank line (only containing white space)
                        is also a paragraph boundary.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made linewise.

a]                                              v_a] v_a[ a] a[
a[                      "a [] block", select [count] '[' ']' blocks.  This
                        goes backwards to the [count] unclosed '[', and finds
                        the matching ']'.  The enclosed text is selected,
                        including the '[' and ']'.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

i]                                              v_i] v_i[ i] i[
i[                      "inner [] block", select [count] '[' ']' blocks.  This
                        goes backwards to the [count] unclosed '[', and finds
                        the matching ']'.  The enclosed text is selected,
                        excluding the '[' and ']'.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

a)                                                      v_a) a) a(
a(                                                      v_ab v_a( ab
ab                      "a block", select [count] blocks, from "[count] [(" to
                        the matching ')', including the '(' and ')' (see
                        [().  Does not include white space outside of the
                        parenthesis.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

i)                                                      v_i) i) i(
i(                                                      v_ib v_i( ib
ib                      "inner block", select [count] blocks, from "[count] [("
                        to the matching ')', excluding the '(' and ')' (see
                        [().
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

a>                                              v_a> v_a< a> a<
a<                      "a <> block", select [count] <> blocks, from the
                        [count]'th unmatched '<' backwards to the matching
                        '>', including the '<' and '>'.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

i>                                              v_i> v_i< i> i<
i<                      "inner <> block", select [count] <> blocks, from
                        the [count]'th unmatched '<' backwards to the matching
                        '>', excluding the '<' and '>'.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

                                                v_at at
at                      "a tag block", select [count] tag blocks, from the
                        [count]'th unmatched "<aaa>" backwards to the matching
                        "</aaa>", including the "<aaa>" and "</aaa>".
                        See tag-blocks about the details.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

                                                v_it it
it                      "inner tag block", select [count] tag blocks, from the
                        [count]'th unmatched "<aaa>" backwards to the matching
                        "</aaa>", excluding the "<aaa>" and "</aaa>".
                        See tag-blocks about the details.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

a}                                                      v_a} a} a{
a{                                                      v_aB v_a{ aB
aB                      "a Block", select [count] Blocks, from "[count] [{" to
                        the matching '}', including the '{' and '}' (see
                        [{).
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

i}                                                      v_i} i} i{
i{                                                      v_iB v_i{ iB
iB                      "inner Block", select [count] Blocks, from "[count] [{"
                        to the matching '}', excluding the '{' and '}' (see
                        [{).
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.

a"                                                      v_aquote aquote
a'                                                      v_a' a'
a`                                                      v_a` a`
                        "a quoted string".  Selects the text from the previous
                        quote until the next quote.  The 'quoteescape' option
                        is used to skip escaped quotes.
                        Only works within one line.
                        When the cursor starts on a quote, Vim will figure out
                        which quote pairs form a string by searching from the
                        start of the line.
                        Any trailing white space is included, unless there is
                        none, then leading white space is included.
                        When used in Visual mode it is made characterwise.
                        Repeating this object in Visual mode another string is
                        included.  A count is currently not used.

i"                                                      v_iquote iquote
i'                                                      v_i' i'
i`                                                      v_i` i`
                        Like a", a' and a`, but exclude the quotes and
                        repeating won't extend the Visual selection.
                        Special case: With a count of 2 the quotes are
                        included, but no extra white space as with a"/a'/a`.

When used after an operator:
For non-block objects:
        For the "a" commands: The operator applies to the object and the white
        space after the object.  If there is no white space after the object
        or when the cursor was in the white space before the object, the white
        space before the object is included.
        For the "inner" commands: If the cursor was on the object, the
        operator applies to the object.  If the cursor was on white space, the
        operator applies to the white space.
For a block object:
        The operator applies to the block where the cursor is in, or the block
        on which the cursor is on one of the braces.  For the "inner" commands
        the surrounding braces are excluded.  For the "a" commands, the braces
        are included.

When used in Visual mode:
When start and end of the Visual area are the same (just after typing "v"):
        One object is selected, the same as for using an operator.
When start and end of the Visual area are not the same:
        For non-block objects the area is extended by one object or the white
        space up to the next object, or both for the "a" objects.  The
        direction in which this happens depends on which side of the Visual
        area the cursor is.  For the block objects the block is extended one
        level outwards.

For illustration, here is a list of delete commands, grouped from small to big
objects.  Note that for a single character and a whole line the existing vi
movement commands are used.
        "dl"    delete character (alias: "x")           dl
        "diw"   delete inner word                       diw
        "daw"   delete a word                           daw
        "diW"   delete inner WORD (see WORD)          diW
        "daW"   delete a WORD (see WORD)              daW
        "dgn"   delete the next search pattern match    dgn
        "dd"    delete one line                         dd
        "dis"   delete inner sentence                   dis
        "das"   delete a sentence                       das
        "dib"   delete inner '(' ')' block              dib
        "dab"   delete a '(' ')' block                  dab
        "dip"   delete inner paragraph                  dip
        "dap"   delete a paragraph                      dap
        "diB"   delete inner '{' '}' block              diB
        "daB"   delete a '{' '}' block                  daB

Note the difference between using a movement command and an object.  The
movement command operates from here (cursor position) to where the movement
takes us.  When using an object the whole object is operated upon, no matter
where on the object the cursor is.  For example, compare "dw" and "daw": "dw"
deletes from the cursor position to the start of the next word, "daw" deletes
the word under the cursor and the space after or before it.


Tag blocks                                              tag-blocks

For the "it" and "at" text objects an attempt is done to select blocks between
matching tags for HTML and XML.  But since these are not completely compatible
there are a few restrictions.

The normal method is to select a <tag> until the matching </tag>.  For "at"
the tags are included, for "it" they are excluded.  But when "it" is repeated
the tags will be included (otherwise nothing would change).  Also, "it" used
on a tag block with no contents will select the leading tag.

"<aaa/>" items are skipped.  Case is ignored, also for XML where case does
matter.

In HTML it is possible to have a tag like <br> or <meta ...> without a
matching end tag.  These are ignored.

The text objects are tolerant about mistakes.  Stray end tags are ignored.

==============================================================================
7. Marks                                        mark-motions E20 E78

Jumping to a mark can be done in two ways:
1. With ` (backtick):     The cursor is positioned at the specified location
                          and the motion is exclusive.
2. With ' (single quote): The cursor is positioned on the first non-blank
                          character in the line of the specified location and
                          the motion is linewise.

                                                m mark Mark
m{a-zA-Z}               Set mark {a-zA-Z} at cursor position (does not move
                        the cursor, this is not a motion command).

                                                m' m`
m'  or  m`              Set the previous context mark.  This can be jumped to
                        with the "''" or "``" command (does not move the
                        cursor, this is not a motion command).

                                                m[ m]
m[  or  m]              Set the '[ or '] mark.  Useful when an operator is
                        to be simulated by multiple commands.  (does not move
                        the cursor, this is not a motion command).

                                                m< m>
m<  or  m>              Set the '< or '> mark.  Useful to change what the
                        gv command selects.  (does not move the cursor, this
                        is not a motion command).
                        Note that the Visual mode cannot be set, only the
                        start and end position.

                                                :ma :mark E191
:[range]ma[rk] {a-zA-Z'}
                        Set mark {a-zA-Z'} at last line number in [range],
                        column 0.  Default is cursor line.

                                                :k
:[range]k{a-zA-Z'}      Same as :mark, but the space before the mark name can
                        be omitted.

                                                ' 'a ` `a
'{a-z}  `{a-z}          Jump to the mark {a-z} in the current buffer.

                                                'A '0 `A `0
'{A-Z0-9}  `{A-Z0-9}    To the mark {A-Z0-9} in the file where it was set (not
                        a motion command when in another file).  {not in Vi}

                                                g' g'a g` g`a
g'{mark}  g`{mark}
                        Jump to the {mark}, but don't change the jumplist when
                        jumping within the current buffer.  Example: 
                                g`"
                       jumps to the last known position in a file.  See
                        $VIMRUNTIME/vimrc_example.vim.
                        Also see :keepjumps.
                        {not in Vi}

                                                :marks
:marks                  List all the current marks (not a motion command).
                        The '(, '), '{ and '} marks are not listed.
                        The first column has number zero.
                        {not in Vi}
                                                E283
:marks {arg}            List the marks that are mentioned in {arg} (not a
                        motion command).  For example: 
                                :marks aB
                       to list marks 'a' and 'B'.  {not in Vi}

                                                        :delm :delmarks
:delm[arks] {marks}     Delete the specified marks.  Marks that can be deleted
                        include A-Z and 0-9.  You cannot delete the ' mark.
                        They can be specified by giving the list of mark
                        names, or with a range, separated with a dash.  Spaces
                        are ignored.  Examples: 
                           :delmarks a        deletes mark a
                           :delmarks a b 1    deletes marks a, b and 1
                           :delmarks Aa       deletes marks A and a
                           :delmarks p-z      deletes marks in the range p to z
                           :delmarks ^.[]     deletes marks ^ . [ ]
                           :delmarks \"       deletes mark "
                       {not in Vi}

:delm[arks]!            Delete all marks for the current buffer, but not marks
                        A-Z or 0-9.
                        {not in Vi}

A mark is not visible in any way.  It is just a position in the file that is
remembered.  Do not confuse marks with named registers, they are totally
unrelated.

'a - 'z         lowercase marks, valid within one file
'A - 'Z         uppercase marks, also called file marks, valid between files
'0 - '9         numbered marks, set from .viminfo file

Lowercase marks 'a to 'z are remembered as long as the file remains in the
buffer list.  If you remove the file from the buffer list, all its marks are
lost.  If you delete a line that contains a mark, that mark is erased.

Lowercase marks can be used in combination with operators.  For example: "d't"
deletes the lines from the cursor position to mark 't'.  Hint: Use mark 't' for
Top, 'b' for Bottom, etc..  Lowercase marks are restored when using undo and
redo.

Uppercase marks 'A to 'Z include the file name.  {Vi: no uppercase marks} You
can use them to jump from file to file.  You can only use an uppercase mark
with an operator if the mark is in the current file.  The line number of the
mark remains correct, even if you insert/delete lines or edit another file for
a moment.  When the 'viminfo' option is not empty, uppercase marks are kept in
the .viminfo file.  See viminfo-file-marks.

Numbered marks '0 to '9 are quite different.  They can not be set directly.
They are only present when using a viminfo file viminfo-file.  Basically '0
is the location of the cursor when you last exited Vim, '1 the last but one
time, etc.  Use the "r" flag in 'viminfo' to specify files for which no
Numbered mark should be stored.  See viminfo-file-marks.


                                                        '[ `[
'[  `[                  To the first character of the previously changed
                        or yanked text.  {not in Vi}

                                                        '] `]
']  `]                  To the last character of the previously changed or
                        yanked text.  {not in Vi}

After executing an operator the Cursor is put at the beginning of the text
that was operated upon.  After a put command ("p" or "P") the cursor is
sometimes placed at the first inserted line and sometimes on the last inserted
character.  The four commands above put the cursor at either end.  Example:
After yanking 10 lines you want to go to the last one of them: "10Y']".  After
inserting several lines with the "p" command you want to jump to the lowest
inserted line: "p']".  This also works for text that has been inserted.

Note: After deleting text, the start and end positions are the same, except
when using blockwise Visual mode.  These commands do not work when no change
was made yet in the current file.

                                                        '< `<
'<  `<                  To the first line or character of the last selected
                        Visual area in the current buffer.  For block mode it
                        may also be the last character in the first line (to
                        be able to define the block).  {not in Vi}.

                                                        '> `>
'>  `>                  To the last line or character of the last selected
                        Visual area in the current buffer.  For block mode it
                        may also be the first character of the last line (to
                        be able to define the block).  Note that 'selection'
                        applies, the position may be just after the Visual
                        area.  {not in Vi}.

                                                        '' ``
''  ``                  To the position before the latest jump, or where the
                        last "m'" or "m`" command was given.  Not set when the
                        :keepjumps command modifier was used.
                        Also see restore-position.

                                                        'quote `quote
'"  `"                  To the cursor position when last exiting the current
                        buffer.  Defaults to the first character of the first
                        line.  See last-position-jump for how to use this
                        for each opened file.
                        Only one position is remembered per buffer, not one
                        for each window.  As long as the buffer is visible in
                        a window the position won't be changed.
                        {not in Vi}.

                                                        '^ `^
'^  `^                  To the position where the cursor was the last time
                        when Insert mode was stopped.  This is used by the
                        gi command.  Not set when the :keepjumps command
                        modifier was used.  {not in Vi}

                                                        '. `.
'.  `.                  To the position where the last change was made.  The
                        position is at or near where the change started.
                        Sometimes a command is executed as several changes,
                        then the position can be near the end of what the
                        command changed.  For example when inserting a word,
                        the position will be on the last character.
                        {not in Vi}

                                                        '( `(
'(  `(                  To the start of the current sentence, like the (
                        command.  {not in Vi}

                                                        ') `)
')  `)                  To the end of the current sentence, like the )
                        command.  {not in Vi}

                                                        '{ `{
'{  `{                  To the start of the current paragraph, like the {
                        command.  {not in Vi}

                                                        '} `}
'}  `}                  To the end of the current paragraph, like the }
                        command.  {not in Vi}

These commands are not marks themselves, but jump to a mark:

                                                        ]'
]'                      [count] times to next line with a lowercase mark below
                        the cursor, on the first non-blank character in the
                        line. {not in Vi}

                                                        ]`
]`                      [count] times to lowercase mark after the cursor. {not
                        in Vi}

                                                        ['
['                      [count] times to previous line with a lowercase mark
                        before the cursor, on the first non-blank character in
                        the line. {not in Vi}

                                                        [`
[`                      [count] times to lowercase mark before the cursor.
                        {not in Vi}


:loc[kmarks] {command}                                  :loc :lockmarks
                        Execute {command} without adjusting marks.  This is
                        useful when changing text in a way that the line count
                        will be the same when the change has completed.
                        WARNING: When the line count does change, marks below
                        the change will keep their line number, thus move to
                        another text line.
                        These items will not be adjusted for deleted/inserted
                        lines:
                        - lower case letter marks 'a - 'z
                        - upper case letter marks 'A - 'Z
                        - numbered marks '0 - '9
                        - last insert position '^
                        - last change position '.
                        - the Visual area '< and '>
                        - line numbers in placed signs
                        - line numbers in quickfix positions
                        - positions in the jumplist
                        - positions in the tagstack
                        These items will still be adjusted:
                        - previous context mark ''
                        - the cursor position
                        - the view of a window on a buffer
                        - folds
                        - diffs

:kee[pmarks] {command}                                  :kee :keepmarks
                        Currently only has effect for the filter command
                        :range!:
                        - When the number of lines after filtering is equal to
                          or larger than before, all marks are kept at the
                          same line number.
                        - When the number of lines decreases, the marks in the
                          lines that disappeared are deleted.
                        In any case the marks below the filtered text have
                        their line numbers adjusted, thus stick to the text,
                        as usual.
                        When the 'R' flag is missing from 'cpoptions' this has
                        the same effect as using ":keepmarks".

                                                        :keepj :keepjumps
:keepj[umps] {command}
                        Moving around in {command} does not change the '',
                        '. and '^ marks, the jumplist or the
                        changelist.
                        Useful when making a change or inserting text
                        automatically and the user doesn't want to go to this
                        position.  E.g., when updating a "Last change"
                        timestamp in the first line: 

                                :let lnum = line(".")
                                :keepjumps normal gg
                                :call SetLastChange()
                                :keepjumps exe "normal " . lnum . "G"

                        Note that ":keepjumps" must be used for every command.
                        When invoking a function the commands in that function
                        can still change the jumplist.  Also, for
                        ":keepjumps exe 'command '" the "command" won't keep
                        jumps.  Instead use: ":exe 'keepjumps command'"

==============================================================================
8. Jumps                                        jump-motions

A "jump" is one of the following commands: "'", "`", "G", "/", "?", "n",
"N", "%", "(", ")", "[[", "]]", "{", "}", ":s", ":tag", "L", "M", "H" and
the commands that start editing a new file.  If you make the cursor "jump"
with one of these commands, the position of the cursor before the jump is
remembered.  You can return to that position with the "''" and "``" command,
unless the line containing that position was changed or deleted.

                                                        CTRL-O
CTRL-O                  Go to [count] Older cursor position in jump list
                        (not a motion command).  {not in Vi}
                        {not available without the |+jumplist| feature}

<Tab>           or                                      CTRL-I <Tab>
CTRL-I                  Go to [count] newer cursor position in jump list
                        (not a motion command).
                        {not in Vi}
                        {not available without the |+jumplist| feature}

                                                        :ju :jumps
:ju[mps]                Print the jump list (not a motion command).  {not in
                        Vi} {not available without the |+jumplist| feature}

                                                        jumplist
Jumps are remembered in a jump list.  With the CTRL-O and CTRL-I command you
can go to cursor positions before older jumps, and back again.  Thus you can
move up and down the list.  There is a separate jump list for each window.
The maximum number of entries is fixed at 100.
{not available without the |+jumplist| feature}

For example, after three jump commands you have this jump list:

  jump line  col file/text 
    3     1    0 some text 
    2    70    0 another line 
    1  1154   23 end. 
 > 

The "file/text" column shows the file name, or the text at the jump if it is
in the current file (an indent is removed and a long line is truncated to fit
in the window).

You are currently in line 1167.  If you then use the CTRL-O command, the
cursor is put in line 1154.  This results in:

  jump line  col file/text 
    2     1    0 some text 
    1    70    0 another line 
 >  0  1154   23 end. 
    1  1167    0 foo bar 

The pointer will be set at the last used jump position.  The next CTRL-O
command will use the entry above it, the next CTRL-I command will use the
entry below it.  If the pointer is below the last entry, this indicates that
you did not use a CTRL-I or CTRL-O before.  In this case the CTRL-O command
will cause the cursor position to be added to the jump list, so you can get
back to the position before the CTRL-O.  In this case this is line 1167.

With more CTRL-O commands you will go to lines 70 and 1.  If you use CTRL-I
you can go back to 1154 and 1167 again.  Note that the number in the "jump"
column indicates the count for the CTRL-O or CTRL-I command that takes you to
this position.

If you use a jump command, the current line number is inserted at the end of
the jump list.  If the same line was already in the jump list, it is removed.
The result is that when repeating CTRL-O you will get back to old positions
only once.

When the :keepjumps command modifier is used, jumps are not stored in the
jumplist.  Jumps are also not stored in other cases, e.g., in a :global
command.  You can explicitly add a jump by setting the ' mark with "m'".  Note
that calling setpos() does not do this.

After the CTRL-O command that got you into line 1154 you could give another
jump command (e.g., "G").  The jump list would then become:

  jump line  col file/text 
    4     1    0 some text 
    3    70    0 another line 
    2  1167    0 foo bar 
    1  1154   23 end. 
 > 

The line numbers will be adjusted for deleted and inserted lines.  This fails
if you stop editing a file without writing, like with ":n!".

When you split a window, the jumplist will be copied to the new window.

If you have included the ' item in the 'viminfo' option the jumplist will be
stored in the viminfo file and restored when starting Vim.


CHANGE LIST JUMPS                       changelist change-list-jumps E664

When making a change the cursor position is remembered.  One position is
remembered for every change that can be undone, unless it is close to a
previous change.  Two commands can be used to jump to positions of changes,
also those that have been undone:

                                                        g; E662
g;                      Go to [count] older position in change list.
                        If [count] is larger than the number of older change
                        positions go to the oldest change.
                        If there is no older change an error message is given.
                        (not a motion command)
                        {not in Vi}
                        {not available without the |+jumplist| feature}

                                                        g, E663
g,                      Go to [count] newer cursor position in change list.
                        Just like g; but in the opposite direction.
                        (not a motion command)
                        {not in Vi}
                        {not available without the |+jumplist| feature}

When using a count you jump as far back or forward as possible.  Thus you can
use "999g;" to go to the first change for which the position is still
remembered.  The number of entries in the change list is fixed and is the same
as for the jumplist.

When two undo-able changes are in the same line and at a column position less
than 'textwidth' apart only the last one is remembered.  This avoids that a
sequence of small changes in a line, for example "xxxxx", adds many positions
to the change list.  When 'textwidth' is zero 'wrapmargin' is used.  When that
also isn't set a fixed number of 79 is used.  Detail: For the computations
bytes are used, not characters, to avoid a speed penalty (this only matters
for multi-byte encodings).

Note that when text has been inserted or deleted the cursor position might be
a bit different from the position of the change.  Especially when lines have
been deleted.

When the :keepjumps command modifier is used the position of a change is not
remembered.

                                                        :changes
:changes                Print the change list.  A ">" character indicates the
                        current position.  Just after a change it is below the
                        newest entry, indicating that "g;" takes you to the
                        newest entry position.  The first column indicates the
                        count needed to take you to this position.  Example:

                                change line  col text 
                                    3     9    8 bla bla bla
                                    2    11   57 foo is a bar
                                    1    14   54 the latest changed line
                                >

                        The "3g;" command takes you to line 9.  Then the
                        output of ":changes is:

                                change line  col text 
                                >   0     9    8 bla bla bla
                                    1    11   57 foo is a bar
                                    2    14   54 the latest changed line

                        Now you can use "g," to go to line 11 and "2g," to go
                        to line 14.

==============================================================================
9. Various motions                              various-motions

                                                        %
%                       Find the next item in this line after or under the
                        cursor and jump to its match. inclusive motion.
                        Items can be:
                        ([{}])          parenthesis or (curly/square) brackets
                                        (this can be changed with the
                                        'matchpairs' option)
                        /* */           start or end of C-style comment
                        #if, #ifdef, #else, #elif, #endif
                                        C preprocessor conditionals (when the
                                        cursor is on the # or no ([{
                                        following)
                        For other items the matchit plugin can be used, see
                        matchit-install.  This plugin also helps to skip
                        matches in comments.

                        When 'cpoptions' contains "M" cpo-M backslashes
                        before parens and braces are ignored.  Without "M" the
                        number of backslashes matters: an even number doesn't
                        match with an odd number.  Thus in "( \) )" and "\( (
                        \)" the first and last parenthesis match.

                        When the '%' character is not present in 'cpoptions'
                        cpo-%, parens and braces inside double quotes are
                        ignored, unless the number of parens/braces in a line
                        is uneven and this line and the previous one does not
                        end in a backslash.  '(', '{', '[', ']', '}' and ')'
                        are also ignored (parens and braces inside single
                        quotes).  Note that this works fine for C, but not for
                        Perl, where single quotes are used for strings.

                        Nothing special is done for matches in comments.  You
                        can either use the matchit plugin matchit-install or
                        put quotes around matches.

                        No count is allowed, {count}% jumps to a line {count}
                        percentage down the file N%.  Using '%' on
                        #if/#else/#endif makes the movement linewise.

                                                [(
[(                      go to [count] previous unmatched '('.
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

                                                [{
[{                      go to [count] previous unmatched '{'.
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

                                                ])
])                      go to [count] next unmatched ')'.
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

                                                ]}
]}                      go to [count] next unmatched '}'.
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

The above four commands can be used to go to the start or end of the current
code block.  It is like doing "%" on the '(', ')', '{' or '}' at the other
end of the code block, but you can do this from anywhere in the code block.
Very useful for C programs.  Example: When standing on "case x:", "[{" will
bring you back to the switch statement.

                                                ]m
]m                      Go to [count] next start of a method (for Java or
                        similar structured language).  When not before the
                        start of a method, jump to the start or end of the
                        class.  When no '{' is found after the cursor, this is
                        an error.  exclusive motion. {not in Vi}
                                                ]M
]M                      Go to [count] next end of a method (for Java or
                        similar structured language).  When not before the end
                        of a method, jump to the start or end of the class.
                        When no '}' is found after the cursor, this is an
                        error. exclusive motion. {not in Vi}
                                                [m
[m                      Go to [count] previous start of a method (for Java or
                        similar structured language).  When not after the
                        start of a method, jump to the start or end of the
                        class.  When no '{' is found before the cursor this is
                        an error. exclusive motion. {not in Vi}
                                                [M
[M                      Go to [count] previous end of a method (for Java or
                        similar structured language).  When not after the
                        end of a method, jump to the start or end of the
                        class.  When no '}' is found before the cursor this is
                        an error. exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

The above two commands assume that the file contains a class with methods.
The class definition is surrounded in '{' and '}'.  Each method in the class
is also surrounded with '{' and '}'.  This applies to the Java language.  The
file looks like this: 

        // comment
        class foo {
                int method_one() {
                        body_one();
                }
                int method_two() {
                        body_two();
                }
        }
Starting with the cursor on "body_two()", using "[m" will jump to the '{' at
the start of "method_two()" (obviously this is much more useful when the
method is long!).  Using "2[m" will jump to the start of "method_one()".
Using "3[m" will jump to the start of the class.

                                                [#
[#                      go to [count] previous unmatched "#if" or "#else".
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

                                                ]#
]#                      go to [count] next unmatched "#else" or "#endif".
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

These two commands work in C programs that contain #if/#else/#endif
constructs.  It brings you to the start or end of the #if/#else/#endif where
the current line is included.  You can then use "%" to go to the matching line.

                                                [star [/
[*  or  [/              go to [count] previous start of a C comment "/*".
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}

                                                ]star ]/
]*  or  ]/              go to [count] next end of a C comment "*/".
                        exclusive motion. {not in Vi}


                                                H
H                       To line [count] from top (Home) of window (default:
                        first line on the window) on the first non-blank
                        character linewise.  See also 'startofline' option.
                        Cursor is adjusted for 'scrolloff' option.

                                                M
M                       To Middle line of window, on the first non-blank
                        character linewise.  See also 'startofline' option.

                                                L
L                       To line [count] from bottom of window (default: Last
                        line on the window) on the first non-blank character
                        linewise.  See also 'startofline' option.
                        Cursor is adjusted for 'scrolloff' option.

<LeftMouse>             Moves to the position on the screen where the mouse
                        click is exclusive.  See also <LeftMouse>.  If the
                        position is in a status line, that window is made the
                        active window and the cursor is not moved.  {not in Vi}

 vim:tw=78:ts=8:ft=help:norl:

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