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filetype.txt  For Vim version 8.0.  Last change: 2016 Sep 09


                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar


Filetypes                                               filetype file-type

1. Filetypes                                    filetypes
2. Filetype plugin                              filetype-plugins
3. Docs for the default filetype plugins.       ftplugin-docs

Also see autocmd.txt.

{Vi does not have any of these commands}

==============================================================================
1. Filetypes                                    filetypes file-types

Vim can detect the type of file that is edited.  This is done by checking the
file name and sometimes by inspecting the contents of the file for specific
text.

                                                        :filetype :filet
To enable file type detection, use this command in your vimrc: 
        :filetype on
Each time a new or existing file is edited, Vim will try to recognize the type
of the file and set the 'filetype' option.  This will trigger the FileType
event, which can be used to set the syntax highlighting, set options, etc.

NOTE: Filetypes and 'compatible' don't work together well, since being Vi
compatible means options are global.  Resetting 'compatible' is recommended,
if you didn't do that already.

Detail: The ":filetype on" command will load one of these files:
                Amiga       $VIMRUNTIME/filetype.vim
                Mac         $VIMRUNTIME:filetype.vim
                MS-DOS      $VIMRUNTIME\filetype.vim
                RiscOS      Vim:Filetype
                Unix        $VIMRUNTIME/filetype.vim
                VMS         $VIMRUNTIME/filetype.vim
        This file is a Vim script that defines autocommands for the
        BufNewFile and BufRead events.  If the file type is not found by the
        name, the file $VIMRUNTIME/scripts.vim is used to detect it from the
        contents of the file.
        When the GUI is running or will start soon, the menu.vim script is
        also sourced.  See 'go-M' about avoiding that.

To add your own file types, see new-filetype below.  To search for help on a
filetype prepend "ft-" and optionally append "-syntax", "-indent" or
"-plugin".  For example: 
        :help ft-vim-indent
        :help ft-vim-syntax
        :help ft-man-plugin

If the file type is not detected automatically, or it finds the wrong type,
you can either set the 'filetype' option manually, or add a modeline to your
file.  Example, for an IDL file use the command: 
        :set filetype=idl

or add this modeline to the file:
        /* vim: set filetype=idl : */ 

                                                :filetype-plugin-on
You can enable loading the plugin files for specific file types with: 
        :filetype plugin on
If filetype detection was not switched on yet, it will be as well.
This actually loads the file "ftplugin.vim" in 'runtimepath'.
The result is that when a file is edited its plugin file is loaded (if there
is one for the detected filetype). filetype-plugin

                                                :filetype-plugin-off
You can disable it again with: 
        :filetype plugin off
The filetype detection is not switched off then.  But if you do switch off
filetype detection, the plugins will not be loaded either.
This actually loads the file "ftplugof.vim" in 'runtimepath'.

                                                :filetype-indent-on
You can enable loading the indent file for specific file types with: 
        :filetype indent on
If filetype detection was not switched on yet, it will be as well.
This actually loads the file "indent.vim" in 'runtimepath'.
The result is that when a file is edited its indent file is loaded (if there
is one for the detected filetype). indent-expression

                                                :filetype-indent-off
You can disable it again with: 
        :filetype indent off
The filetype detection is not switched off then.  But if you do switch off
filetype detection, the indent files will not be loaded either.
This actually loads the file "indoff.vim" in 'runtimepath'.
This disables auto-indenting for files you will open.  It will keep working in
already opened files.  Reset 'autoindent', 'cindent', 'smartindent' and/or
'indentexpr' to disable indenting in an opened file.

                                                :filetype-off
To disable file type detection, use this command: 
        :filetype off
This will keep the flags for "plugin" and "indent", but since no file types
are being detected, they won't work until the next ":filetype on".


Overview:                                       :filetype-overview

command                         detection       plugin          indent 
:filetype on                    on              unchanged       unchanged
:filetype off                   off             unchanged       unchanged
:filetype plugin on             on              on              unchanged
:filetype plugin off            unchanged       off             unchanged
:filetype indent on             on              unchanged       on
:filetype indent off            unchanged       unchanged       off
:filetype plugin indent on      on              on              on
:filetype plugin indent off     unchanged       off             off

To see the current status, type: 
        :filetype
The output looks something like this: 
        filetype detection:ON  plugin:ON  indent:OFF

The file types are also used for syntax highlighting.  If the ":syntax on"
command is used, the file type detection is installed too.  There is no need
to do ":filetype on" after ":syntax on".

To disable one of the file types, add a line in your filetype file, see
remove-filetype.

                                                        filetype-detect
To detect the file type again: 
        :filetype detect
Use this if you started with an empty file and typed text that makes it
possible to detect the file type.  For example, when you entered this in a
shell script: "#!/bin/csh".
   When filetype detection was off, it will be enabled first, like the "on"
argument was used.

                                                        filetype-overrule
When the same extension is used for two filetypes, Vim tries to guess what
kind of file it is.  This doesn't always work.  A number of global variables
can be used to overrule the filetype used for certain extensions:

        file name       variable 
        *.asa           g:filetype_asa  ft-aspvbs-syntax ft-aspperl-syntax
        *.asp           g:filetype_asp  ft-aspvbs-syntax ft-aspperl-syntax
        *.asm           g:asmsyntax     ft-asm-syntax
        *.prg           g:filetype_prg
        *.pl            g:filetype_pl
        *.inc           g:filetype_inc
        *.w             g:filetype_w    ft-cweb-syntax
        *.i             g:filetype_i    ft-progress-syntax
        *.p             g:filetype_p    ft-pascal-syntax
        *.sh            g:bash_is_sh    ft-sh-syntax
        *.tex           g:tex_flavor    ft-tex-plugin

                                                        filetype-ignore
To avoid that certain files are being inspected, the g:ft_ignore_pat variable
is used.  The default value is set like this: 
        :let g:ft_ignore_pat = '\.\(Z\|gz\|bz2\|zip\|tgz\)$'
This means that the contents of compressed files are not inspected.

                                                        new-filetype
If a file type that you want to use is not detected yet, there are four ways
to add it.  In any way, it's better not to modify the $VIMRUNTIME/filetype.vim
file.  It will be overwritten when installing a new version of Vim.

A. If you want to overrule all default file type checks.
   This works by writing one file for each filetype.  The disadvantage is that
   means there can be many files.  The advantage is that you can simply drop
   this file in the right directory to make it work.
                                                        ftdetect
   1. Create your user runtime directory.  You would normally use the first
      item of the 'runtimepath' option.  Then create the directory "ftdetect"
      inside it.  Example for Unix: 
        :!mkdir ~/.vim
        :!mkdir ~/.vim/ftdetect

   2. Create a file that contains an autocommand to detect the file type.
      Example: 
        au BufRead,BufNewFile *.mine            set filetype=mine
     Note that there is no "augroup" command, this has already been done
      when sourcing your file.  You could also use the pattern "*" and then
      check the contents of the file to recognize it.
      Write this file as "mine.vim" in the "ftdetect" directory in your user
      runtime directory.  For example, for Unix: 
        :w ~/.vim/ftdetect/mine.vim

  3. To use the new filetype detection you must restart Vim.

   The files in the "ftdetect" directory are used after all the default
   checks, thus they can overrule a previously detected file type.  But you
   can also use :setfiletype to keep a previously detected filetype.

B. If you want to detect your file after the default file type checks.

   This works like A above, but instead of setting 'filetype' unconditionally
   use ":setfiletype".  This will only set 'filetype' if no file type was
   detected yet.  Example: 
        au BufRead,BufNewFile *.txt             setfiletype text

   You can also use the already detected file type in your command.  For
   example, to use the file type "mypascal" when "pascal" has been detected: 
        au BufRead,BufNewFile *         if &ft == 'pascal' | set ft=mypascal
                                                                       | endif

C. If your file type can be detected by the file name.
   1. Create your user runtime directory.  You would normally use the first
      item of the 'runtimepath' option.  Example for Unix: 
        :!mkdir ~/.vim

   2. Create a file that contains autocommands to detect the file type.
      Example: 
        " my filetype file
        if exists("did_load_filetypes")
          finish
        endif
        augroup filetypedetect
          au! BufRead,BufNewFile *.mine         setfiletype mine
          au! BufRead,BufNewFile *.xyz          setfiletype drawing
        augroup END
     Write this file as "filetype.vim" in your user runtime directory.  For
      example, for Unix: 
        :w ~/.vim/filetype.vim

  3. To use the new filetype detection you must restart Vim.

   Your filetype.vim will be sourced before the default FileType autocommands
   have been installed.  Your autocommands will match first, and the
   ":setfiletype" command will make sure that no other autocommands will set
   'filetype' after this.
                                                        new-filetype-scripts
D. If your filetype can only be detected by inspecting the contents of the
   file.

   1. Create your user runtime directory.  You would normally use the first
      item of the 'runtimepath' option.  Example for Unix: 
        :!mkdir ~/.vim

   2. Create a vim script file for doing this.  Example: 
        if did_filetype()       " filetype already set..
          finish                " ..don't do these checks
        endif
        if getline(1) =~ '^#!.*\<mine\>'
          setfiletype mine
        elseif getline(1) =~? '\<drawing\>'
          setfiletype drawing
        endif
     See $VIMRUNTIME/scripts.vim for more examples.
      Write this file as "scripts.vim" in your user runtime directory.  For
      example, for Unix: 
        :w ~/.vim/scripts.vim

   3. The detection will work right away, no need to restart Vim.

   Your scripts.vim is loaded before the default checks for file types, which
   means that your rules override the default rules in
   $VIMRUNTIME/scripts.vim.

                                                remove-filetype
If a file type is detected that is wrong for you, install a filetype.vim or
scripts.vim to catch it (see above).  You can set 'filetype' to a non-existing
name to avoid that it will be set later anyway: 
        :set filetype=ignored

If you are setting up a system with many users, and you don't want each user
to add/remove the same filetypes, consider writing the filetype.vim and
scripts.vim files in a runtime directory that is used for everybody.  Check
the 'runtimepath' for a directory to use.  If there isn't one, set
'runtimepath' in the system-vimrc.  Be careful to keep the default
directories!


                                                autocmd-osfiletypes
NOTE: this code is currently disabled, as the RISC OS implementation was
removed.  In the future this will use the 'filetype' option.

On operating systems which support storing a file type with the file, you can
specify that an autocommand should only be executed if the file is of a
certain type.

The actual type checking depends on which platform you are running Vim
on; see your system's documentation for details.

To use osfiletype checking in an autocommand you should put a list of types to
match in angle brackets in place of a pattern, like this: 

        :au BufRead *.html,<&faf;HTML>  runtime! syntax/html.vim

This will match:

- Any file whose name ends in ".html"
- Any file whose type is "&faf" or "HTML", where the meaning of these types
  depends on which version of Vim you are using.
  Unknown types are considered NOT to match.

You can also specify a type and a pattern at the same time (in which case they
must both match): 

        :au BufRead <&fff>diff*

This will match files of type "&fff" whose names start with "diff".


                                                        plugin-details
The "plugin" directory can be in any of the directories in the 'runtimepath'
option.  All of these directories will be searched for plugins and they are
all loaded.  For example, if this command: 

        set runtimepath

produces this output:

        runtimepath=/etc/vim,~/.vim,/usr/local/share/vim/vim60 

then Vim will load all plugins in these directories and below:

        /etc/vim/plugin/  
        ~/.vim/plugin/  
        /usr/local/share/vim/vim60/plugin/  

Note that the last one is the value of $VIMRUNTIME which has been expanded.

What if it looks like your plugin is not being loaded?  You can find out what
happens when Vim starts up by using the -V argument: 

        vim -V2

You will see a lot of messages, in between them is a remark about loading the
plugins.  It starts with:

        Searching for "plugin/**/*.vim" in 

There you can see where Vim looks for your plugin scripts.

==============================================================================
2. Filetype plugin                                      filetype-plugins

When loading filetype plugins has been enabled :filetype-plugin-on, options
will be set and mappings defined.  These are all local to the buffer, they
will not be used for other files.

Defining mappings for a filetype may get in the way of the mappings you
define yourself.  There are a few ways to avoid this:
1. Set the "maplocalleader" variable to the key sequence you want the mappings
   to start with.  Example: 
        :let maplocalleader = ","
  All mappings will then start with a comma instead of the default, which
   is a backslash.  Also see <LocalLeader>.

2. Define your own mapping.  Example: 
        :map ,p <Plug>MailQuote
  You need to check the description of the plugin file below for the
   functionality it offers and the string to map to.
   You need to define your own mapping before the plugin is loaded (before
   editing a file of that type).  The plugin will then skip installing the
   default mapping.

3. Disable defining mappings for a specific filetype by setting a variable,
   which contains the name of the filetype.  For the "mail" filetype this
   would be: 
        :let no_mail_maps = 1

4. Disable defining mappings for all filetypes by setting a variable: 
        :let no_plugin_maps = 1


                                                        ftplugin-overrule
If a global filetype plugin does not do exactly what you want, there are three
ways to change this:

1. Add a few settings.
   You must create a new filetype plugin in a directory early in
   'runtimepath'.  For Unix, for example you could use this file: 
        vim ~/.vim/ftplugin/fortran.vim
  You can set those settings and mappings that you would like to add.  Note
   that the global plugin will be loaded after this, it may overrule the
   settings that you do here.  If this is the case, you need to use one of the
   following two methods.

2. Make a copy of the plugin and change it.
   You must put the copy in a directory early in 'runtimepath'.  For Unix, for
   example, you could do this: 
        cp $VIMRUNTIME/ftplugin/fortran.vim ~/.vim/ftplugin/fortran.vim
  Then you can edit the copied file to your liking.  Since the b:did_ftplugin
   variable will be set, the global plugin will not be loaded.
   A disadvantage of this method is that when the distributed plugin gets
   improved, you will have to copy and modify it again.

3. Overrule the settings after loading the global plugin.
   You must create a new filetype plugin in a directory from the end of
   'runtimepath'.  For Unix, for example, you could use this file: 
        vim ~/.vim/after/ftplugin/fortran.vim
  In this file you can change just those settings that you want to change.

==============================================================================
3.  Docs for the default filetype plugins.              ftplugin-docs


CHANGELOG                                               ft-changelog-plugin

Allows for easy entrance of Changelog entries in Changelog files.  There are
some commands, mappings, and variables worth exploring:

Options:
'comments'              is made empty to not mess up formatting.
'textwidth'             is set to 78, which is standard.
'formatoptions'         the 't' flag is added to wrap when inserting text.

Commands:
NewChangelogEntry       Adds a new Changelog entry in an intelligent fashion
                        (see below).

Local mappings:
<Leader>o               Starts a new Changelog entry in an equally intelligent
                        fashion (see below).

Global mappings:
                        NOTE: The global mappings are accessed by sourcing the
                        ftplugin/changelog.vim file first, e.g. with 
                                runtime ftplugin/changelog.vim
                       in your .vimrc.
<Leader>o               Switches to the ChangeLog buffer opened for the
                        current directory, or opens it in a new buffer if it
                        exists in the current directory.  Then it does the
                        same as the local <Leader>o described above.

Variables:
g:changelog_timeformat  Deprecated; use g:changelog_dateformat instead.
g:changelog_dateformat  The date (and time) format used in ChangeLog entries.
                        The format accepted is the same as for the
                        strftime() function.
                        The default is "%Y-%m-%d" which is the standard format
                        for many ChangeLog layouts.
g:changelog_username    The name and email address of the user.
                        The default is deduced from environment variables and
                        system files.  It searches /etc/passwd for the comment
                        part of the current user, which informally contains
                        the real name of the user up to the first separating
                        comma.  then it checks the $NAME environment variable
                        and finally runs whoami and hostname to build an
                        email address.  The final form is 
                                Full Name  <user@host>

g:changelog_new_date_format
                        The format to use when creating a new date-entry.
                        The following table describes special tokens in the
                        string:
                                %%      insert a single '%' character
                                %d      insert the date from above
                                %u      insert the user from above
                                %p      insert result of b:changelog_entry_prefix
                                %c      where to position cursor when done
                        The default is "%d  %u\n\n\t* %p%c\n\n", which produces
                        something like (| is where cursor will be, unless at
                        the start of the line where it denotes the beginning
                        of the line) 
                                |2003-01-14  Full Name  <user@host>
                                |
                                |        * prefix|

g:changelog_new_entry_format
                        The format used when creating a new entry.
                        The following table describes special tokens in the
                        string:
                                %p      insert result of b:changelog_entry_prefix
                                %c      where to position cursor when done
                        The default is "\t*%c", which produces something
                        similar to 
                                |        * prefix|

g:changelog_date_entry_search
                        The search pattern to use when searching for a
                        date-entry.
                        The same tokens that can be used for
                        g:changelog_new_date_format can be used here as well.
                        The default is '^\s*%d\_s*%u' which finds lines
                        matching the form 
                                |2003-01-14  Full Name  <user@host>
                       and some similar formats.

g:changelog_date_end_entry_search
                        The search pattern to use when searching for the end
                        of a date-entry.
                        The same tokens that can be used for
                        g:changelog_new_date_format can be used here as well.
                        The default is '^\s*$' which finds lines that contain
                        only whitespace or are completely empty.

b:changelog_name                                        b:changelog_name
                        Name of the ChangeLog file to look for.
                        The default is 'ChangeLog'.

b:changelog_path
                        Path of the ChangeLog to use for the current buffer.
                        The default is empty, thus looking for a file named
                        b:changelog_name in the same directory as the
                        current buffer.  If not found, the parent directory of
                        the current buffer is searched.  This continues
                        recursively until a file is found or there are no more
                        parent directories to search.

b:changelog_entry_prefix
                        Name of a function to call to generate a prefix to a
                        new entry.  This function takes no arguments and
                        should return a string containing the prefix.
                        Returning an empty prefix is fine.
                        The default generates the shortest path between the
                        ChangeLog's pathname and the current buffers pathname.
                        In the future, it will also be possible to use other
                        variable contexts for this variable, for example, g:.

The Changelog entries are inserted where they add the least amount of text.
After figuring out the current date and user, the file is searched for an
entry beginning with the current date and user and if found adds another item
under it.  If not found, a new entry and item is prepended to the beginning of
the Changelog.


FORTRAN                                                 ft-fortran-plugin

Options:
'expandtab'     is switched on to avoid tabs as required by the Fortran
                standards unless the user has set fortran_have_tabs in .vimrc.
'textwidth'     is set to 72 for fixed source format as required by the
                Fortran standards and to 80 for free source format.
'formatoptions' is set to break code and comment lines and to preserve long
                lines.  You can format comments with gq.
For further discussion of fortran_have_tabs and the method used for the
detection of source format see ft-fortran-syntax.


GIT COMMIT                                              ft-gitcommit-plugin

One command, :DiffGitCached, is provided to show a diff of the current commit
in the preview window.  It is equivalent to calling "git diff --cached" plus
any arguments given to the command.


MAIL                                                    ft-mail-plugin

Options:
'modeline'      is switched off to avoid the danger of trojan horses, and to
                avoid that a Subject line with "Vim:" in it will cause an
                error message.
'textwidth'     is set to 72.  This is often recommended for e-mail.
'formatoptions'  is set to break text lines and to repeat the comment leader
                in new lines, so that a leading ">" for quotes is repeated.
                You can also format quoted text with gq.

Local mappings:
<LocalLeader>q   or   \\MailQuote
        Quotes the text selected in Visual mode, or from the cursor position
        to the end of the file in Normal mode.  This means "> " is inserted in
        each line.

MAN                                     ft-man-plugin :Man man.vim

Displays a manual page in a nice way.  Also see the user manual
find-manpage.

To start using the ":Man" command before any manual page was loaded, source
this script from your startup vimrc file: 

        runtime ftplugin/man.vim

Options:
'iskeyword'     the '.' character is added to be able to use CTRL-] on the
                manual page name.

Commands:
Man {name}      Display the manual page for {name} in a window.
Man {number} {name}
                Display the manual page for {name} in a section {number}.

Global mapping:
<Leader>K       Displays the manual page for the word under the cursor.

Local mappings:
CTRL-]          Jump to the manual page for the word under the cursor.
CTRL-T          Jump back to the previous manual page.
q               Same as ":quit"

To use a vertical split instead of horizontal: 
        let g:ft_man_open_mode = 'vert'
To use a new tab: 
        let g:ft_man_open_mode = 'tab'

To enable folding use this: 
        let g:ft_man_folding_enable = 1
If you do not like the default folding, use an autocommand to add your desired
folding style instead.  For example: 
        autocmd FileType man setlocal foldmethod=indent foldenable

You may also want to set 'keywordprg' to make the K command open a manual
page in a Vim window: 
        set keywordprg=:Man


MANPAGER                                      manpager.vim

The :Man command allows you to turn Vim into a manpager (that syntax highlights
manpages and follows linked manpages on hitting CTRL-]).

Works on:

  - Linux
  - Mac OS
  - FreeBSD
  - Cygwin
  - Win 10 under Bash

Untested:

  - Amiga OS
  - BeOS
  - OS/2

For bash,zsh,ksh or dash by adding to the config file (.bashrc,.zshrc, ...)

        export MANPAGER="env MAN_PN=1 vim -M +MANPAGER -"

For (t)csh by adding to the config file

        setenv MANPAGER "env MAN_PN=1 vim -M +MANPAGER -"

For fish by adding to the config file

        set -x MANPAGER "env MAN_PN=1 vim -M +MANPAGER -"

If man sets the $MAN_PN environment variable, like man-db, the most common
implementation on Linux and Mac OS, then the "env MAN_PN=1 " part above is
superfluous.

PDF                                                     ft-pdf-plugin

Two maps, <C-]> and <C-T>, are provided to simulate a tag stack for navigating
the PDF.  The following are treated as tags:

- The byte offset after "startxref" to the xref table
- The byte offset after the /Prev key in the trailer to an earlier xref table
- A line of the form "0123456789 00000 n" in the xref table
- An object reference like "1 0 R" anywhere in the PDF

These maps can be disabled with 
        :let g:no_pdf_maps = 1


PYTHON                                          ft-python-plugin PEP8

By default the following options are set, in accordance with PEP8: 

        setlocal expandtab shiftwidth=4 softtabstop=4 tabstop=8

To disable this behaviour, set the following variable in your vimrc: 
        
        let g:python_recommended_style = 0


RPM SPEC                                                ft-spec-plugin

Since the text for this plugin is rather long it has been put in a separate
file: pi_spec.txt.


SQL                                                     ft-sql

Since the text for this plugin is rather long it has been put in a separate
file: ft_sql.txt.


TEX                                             ft-tex-plugin g:tex_flavor

If the first line of a *.tex file has the form 
        %&<format>
then this determined the file type:  plaintex (for plain TeX), context (for
ConTeXt), or tex (for LaTeX).  Otherwise, the file is searched for keywords to
choose context or tex.  If no keywords are found, it defaults to plaintex.
You can change the default by defining the variable g:tex_flavor to the format
(not the file type) you use most.  Use one of these: 
        let g:tex_flavor = "plain"
        let g:tex_flavor = "context"
        let g:tex_flavor = "latex"
Currently no other formats are recognized.


 vim:tw=78:ts=8:ft=help:norl:

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